July 3, 2023


Invalid deeds or conveyances refer to legal documents that are considered null and void in the eyes of the law. Such documents are often created with the intent to transfer property ownership from one party to another, but are flawed or lacking in some way that makes them unenforceable.

Understanding the various types of invalid deeds and conveyances is important for property owners, buyers, and sellers alike, as it can help them avoid potential legal disputes and protect their assets. In this article, we will explore the different types of invalid deeds and conveyances, and what property owners can do to address these issues.

Overview of Invalid Deeds or Conveyances

What Are Invalid Deeds or Conveyances?

Invalid deeds or conveyances are legal documents that are considered null and void. They are not enforceable in court because they lack the necessary legal requirements. An invalid deed or conveyance can arise for several reasons, including forgery, lack of capacity, duress, fraud, and mistake. A forged deed is one that is illegally copied from an original document and passed off as the real thing.

A lack of capacity refers to the inability of a person to understand the legal consequences of their actions, whether due to mental incompetence or intoxication. Duress occurs when a person is forced to sign a legal document against their will. Frauds arise when a person misrepresents the facts or conceals important information in order to deceive another person into signing a legal document.

A mistake can also lead to an invalid deed or conveyance. A mistake could be made in the description of the property or the parties involved in the transaction, rendering the deed or conveyance legally invalid. It is essential to identify and avoid invalid deeds or conveyances to ensure that the property transfer process is legally binding and enforceable in court.

Types of Invalid Deeds or Conveyances

The types of invalid deeds or conveyances are varied and complex. They include forgery, lack of capacity, duress, fraud, and mistake. Forgery is the act of making a false document with the intent of defrauding another person. It is a crime that can result in legal consequences for the forger. Lack of capacity refers to situations where the person who signed the deed did not have the legal ability to do so.

This can occur when an individual is mentally incapacitated, under the influence of drugs or alcohol, or is a minor. Duress occurs when a person is forced to sign a document against their will, typically through the use of threats or physical violence. Fraud refers to situations where the signer makes false statements or misrepresentations in order to induce the other party to sign the deed.

Finally, mistake occurs when the deed is signed based on a misunderstanding of the terms or conditions of the contract. All of these types of invalid deeds or conveyances can result in legal disputes that require the intervention of a judge or court system to resolve.

Legal Requirements for Valid Deeds or Conveyances

Competent Parties

Competent parties are essential in ensuring that a deed or conveyance is valid. A competent party is an individual who has the legal capacity to enter into a contract and make binding decisions. In the context of deeds or conveyances, competent parties are individuals who are legally entitled to transfer property rights to another party.

Generally, the parties must be of legal age and possess sufficient mental capacity to understand the terms of the agreement. Additionally, parties must not be under duress or coerced in any way to agree to the transfer of property rights. Incompetent parties may result in a deed or conveyance being invalidated, and may cause legal disputes if property is transferred improperly.

In some cases, courts may also rule a deed as invalid if it is determined that the parties did not fully understand the consequences of their actions or did not voluntarily enter into the agreement. In conclusion, competent parties are vital to ensuring that deeds or conveyances are legally binding and serve as a way to protect the transfer of property rights.


A deed or conveyance is a legal document used to transfer property from one individual or entity to another. In order for a deed or conveyance to be valid, there are several key elements that must be present. One such element is consideration, which refers to the exchange of something of value between the parties involved in the transaction.

This can be monetary compensation, the promise of a service, or any other item of value. Consideration is necessary because it serves as evidence of a mutual agreement between the parties, demonstrating that both sides have received something of equal worth and that they are entering into the transaction willingly.

Additionally, consideration can help protect against fraud, as it provides an incentive for both parties to act in good faith and to fulfill their obligations under the agreement. Ultimately, consideration is an essential component of any valid deed or conveyance, as it helps to ensure that the transfer of property is fair and legally binding.

Legal Description

Legal description is a critical component of valid deeds or conveyances. It is a detailed and precise description of the property that outlines all of its relevant characteristics and physical boundaries, such as length, width, and depth, that distinguish it from other properties.

A legal description is usually included in the deed and is based on the survey conducted by licensed surveyors to ensure exact property dimensions. Failure to provide a complete and accurate legal description can result in an invalid conveyance or deed that cannot be enforced by law.

Delivery and Acceptance

Delivery and acceptance are two critical components of a valid deed or conveyance. Delivery refers to the transfer of the deed from the grantor to the grantee, while acceptance refers to the grantee’s agreement to the terms and conditions of the deed. Both delivery and acceptance must occur to establish a legally binding transfer of property ownership.

Delivery of the deed can be executed in several ways, including physically handing the document to the grantee, mailing it to the grantee with a return receipt, or registering the deed with the appropriate authorities. Acceptance can be implied through actions taken by the grantee, such as taking possession of the property or paying the agreed-upon price.

It is essential that delivery and acceptance are executed by competent parties who fully understand the implications of the transfer and have the power to enter into a binding agreement. Failure to properly execute delivery and acceptance can result in an invalid deed or conveyance, leading to legal disputes and potential financial loss.

Consequences of Invalid Deeds or Conveyances

Title Issues

The issue of invalid deeds or conveyances can have significant impacts on title ownership. Essentially, it refers to any document that is improperly executed, signed by unauthorized parties, or contains errors in legal description of the property. These issues can result in ownership disputes, clouding of titles, and even complete loss of ownership. It is important to understand the effects of invalid deeds or conveyances in order to avoid future legal disputes and consequences.


Liability for invalid deeds or conveyances typically falls on the parties involved in the transaction. This can include the grantor, the grantee, and any intermediaries such as real estate agents or attorneys. Any party who knew or should have known about the invalidity of the deed or conveyance may be held liable for damages resulting from the transaction. In some cases, liability may extend to subsequent owners who may have unknowingly purchased invalid titles.

Liability may also arise from the failure to disclose defects in the title, such as undisclosed easements or liens. In addition to civil liability, parties involved in fraudulent conveyances may also face criminal charges. It is important to note that liability may vary depending on the nature of the defect in the title.

For instance, if the invalidity of the deed or conveyance resulted from a mistake or omission, the liability may be limited to the party responsible for the error. However, if the transaction was fraudulent or involved undue influence, the liability may be more extensive. It is also worth noting that the legal principle of caveat emptor, or “buyer beware,” may limit the liability of innocent purchasers who were not aware of defects in the title at the time of purchase.

In cases where liability arises from defects in the title, parties may pursue a variety of remedies. For instance, a party may seek to rescind the transaction and obtain a refund of any money paid. Alternatively, parties may seek monetary damages to compensate for any losses resulting from the transaction. In some cases, parties may also seek to quiet title, which is a legal action that seeks to establish a party’s ownership of a particular piece of property.

Depending on the nature of the defect in the title, parties may also pursue quiet title actions against other parties who may have competing claims to the property. In any case involving invalid deeds or conveyances, it is important to consult with an experienced real estate attorney who can advise on the best course of action.

An attorney can help parties understand their legal rights and obligations, as well as potential liability and options for pursuing remedies. By taking proactive steps and seeking professional guidance, parties can help mitigate the risks associated with invalid deeds or conveyances and protect their interests in real estate transactions.

Remedies for Invalid Deeds or Conveyances

Remedies for invalid deeds or conveyances refer to the legal course of action that can be taken to rectify or mitigate the effects of the invalidity. One of the most common remedies for invalid deeds is reformation. Reformation entails correcting or modifying a deed to express the parties’ actual intent accurately.

This remedy is typically available when the parties have a mutual mistake or clerical error resulting in an erroneous or incomplete deed. A court may reform a deed to reflect the original transaction’s true intent. Another remedy for an invalid deed is rescission. Rescission annuls the deed and restores the parties to their pre-contractual positions.

For rescission to be successful, the party seeking rescission must prove the invalidity of the deed. Fraudulent conveyances may also be subject to rescission. A fraudulent conveyance is a conveyance made with the intent of avoiding debts, hindering creditors’ efforts, or delaying the process of a creditor’s claim. In such cases, a court may rescind the conveyance and set it aside, allowing creditors to attach the property transferred.

Invalid Deeds or Conveyances FAQs

What is an invalid deed or conveyance?

Invalid deed or conveyance refers to a legal instrument that is defective or ineffective in transferring ownership of a property. It may be caused by various defects such as lack of legal capacity on the part of the grantor, forgery, fraud, or non-compliance with statutory requirements.

What are the types of defective deeds or conveyances?

There are various types of defective deeds or conveyances, including forged deeds, deeds executed by incompetent persons or minors, deeds executed under duress, fraudulent deeds, and deeds with errors or omissions. Each type of defective deed has its own unique characteristics and legal consequences.

What are the consequences of an invalid deed or conveyance?

The consequences of an invalid deed or conveyance are that it has no legal effect, and therefore the transfer of ownership of the property is null and void. This means that the grantor does not have any legal right to the property, and the grantee cannot claim any ownership or rights in the property.

How can a defective deed or conveyance be remedied?

A defective deed or conveyance can be remedied by various legal methods, including reformation, estoppel, ratification, or correction. The specific method of remediation will depend on the specific defect and the circumstances of the case.

What is the role of a title insurance company in cases of invalid deeds or conveyances?

Title insurance companies play an important role in cases of invalid deeds or conveyances by providing coverage to protect the grantee from certain defects or claims that may arise after the transfer of ownership. In some cases, title insurance companies may also provide legal aid in defending the grantee’s ownership of the property.

What are the legal remedies available for an aggrieved party in an invalid deed or conveyance?

An aggrieved party in an invalid deed or conveyance may pursue legal remedies such as a quiet title action, which seeks a court declaration of ownership, or an action for damages against the grantor. Other legal remedies may include rescission, reformation, or specific performance.

About the Author

As a native Washingtonian, Carlos Reyes’ journey in the real estate industry began more than 15 years ago when he started an online real estate company. Since then, he’s helped more than 700 individuals and families as a real estate broker achieve their real estate goals across Virginia, Maryland and Washington, DC.

Carlos now helps real estate agents grow their business by teaching business fundamentals, execution, and leadership.

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