April 12, 2023


This comprehensive article explores the intricacies of title insurance, its purpose, and the different types of policies available. It dives into the components of a title insurance policy, the title search and examination process, costs, and payment options.

Additionally, it details common title issues that insurance can protect against, claims and dispute resolution processes, factors to consider when choosing a title insurance company, and steps for finalizing and maintaining your policy. The article serves as a valuable resource for anyone looking to better understand and navigate the world of title insurance.

What is Title Insurance?

Title insurance is a unique form of indemnity insurance that protects both property buyers and lenders from potential financial loss due to undetected defects or issues in a property’s title. A title is the formal right of ownership and possession of a property. When you buy a property, you receive a title documenting that the property’s ownership has been transferred to you. A clear title is essential for a smooth and successful transfer of ownership.

Title insurance policies can help cover the costs of legal fees, monetary damages, or lost equity due to title defects, such as liens, encumbrances, or other hidden problems that were not discovered during the title search process. They are typically issued upon the closing of a real estate transaction and may be required by lenders as a condition of providing mortgage financing.

The Two Types of Title Insurance Policies

There are two main types of title insurance policies available for buyers and lenders:

  1. Owner’s Title Insurance Policy: This policy protects the property owner’s interests, covering the owner’s investment in the property in case there are title-related issues that were not discovered during the title search. An owner’s policy may cover such things as errors in public records, fraud or forgery, undisclosed or missing heirs, and defects in the title. Typically, the buyer purchases an owner’s policy, although in some places, it is customary for the seller to purchase the policy for the buyer.
  2. Lender’s Title Insurance Policy: This policy is designed to protect the lender’s financial stake in the property. In the event of a problem with the title, the lender’s title insurance policy would cover the unpaid balance of the loan, allowing the lender to recoup their funds. This policy is typically required by lenders when providing finance for a real estate transaction, and the buyer is usually responsible for purchasing it.

How Title Insurance Works

The process of obtaining title insurance starts with a title search, conducted by a title company or an attorney. A title search involves examining public records, land records, and any other relevant documents to identify any potential claims, liens, or other issues that may affect the property’s title. This search aims to uncover any problems that may prevent the buyer from owning the property free and clear.

Upon completion of the title search, the title professional will issue a title commitment, also known as a preliminary title report, which outlines the terms and conditions under which the title company is willing to issue title insurance. This commitment typically includes any exceptions or exclusions to coverage based on the findings of the title search. If any issues need to be resolved before closing, the buyer or seller may need to negotiate with the parties involved.

At closing, the title company will issue the owner and lender’s title insurance policies, and the premium for the insurance is paid in a one-time fee. Once the policy is in place, it protects the insured party for as long as they have an interest in the property. If a claim is made against the property’s title, the title insurance company will investigate the claim, defend the insured in court if necessary, and cover any financial losses resulting from a covered issue.

The Importance of Title Insurance Policies

Purchasing a title insurance policy is an essential step in the home-buying process, as it provides critical protections for both property owners and lenders. A clear and marketable title is necessary for a successful transfer of ownership, and title insurance helps ensure that any potential issues with the title are discovered or resolved.

Title insurance policies offer peace of mind to both buyers and lenders, ensuring that their investments are protected against unforeseen title defects. By obtaining a title insurance policy, property owners can reduce the risk of financial loss and enjoy greater confidence in their ownership rights.

Additionally, title insurance policies help facilitate smoother real estate transactions by uncovering potential issues that could hinder the transfer of property ownership. In this way, title insurance plays a crucial role in the health and stability of the real estate market.

Definition of Title Insurance

Title insurance is a type of indemnity insurance policy that protects an individual or entity from financial loss resulting from defects in the title to their real property. It is designed to protect the policyholder against potential ownership disputes, liens, or other title-related issues that may arise after the purchase of a property.

It is important to note that title insurance is fundamentally different from other forms of property insurance, such as homeowners’ insurance. Title insurance primarily focuses on risks that stem from past events, whereas other property insurance policies protect against future risks, like theft or damage. It ensures that the policyholder has a clear and marketable title, by identifying and addressing any title defects prior to the sale of the property. In case any issue arises after the property transfer, the title insurance company will defend the title and potentially compensate the policyholder, as long as it falls within the scope of the policy.

Purpose of Title Insurance

The primary purpose of title insurance is to protect property buyers and mortgage lenders from potential issues related to the ownership or transfer of real estate. These issues can range from simple errors in public records, to more complicated issues such as fraud, forgery, or undisclosed heirs, any of which can lead to legal disputes or financial loss.

Some of the specific purposes of title insurance include:

  1. Protecting the buyer against title defects: Title insurance can protect a property owner from any issues that may arise due to defects in the title or the property ownership. These defects may include errors in public records, undisclosed liens or easements, or even fraud, which can affect the buyer’s rights to the property.
  2. Safeguarding the lender’s investment: When a mortgage lender provides a loan for a property purchase, they are exposed to potential title-related risks. In the event that any such issues arise after the purchase of the property, lender’s title insurance can shield the mortgage lender from financial loss.
  3. Facilitating real estate transactions: Title insurance companies will often perform a thorough title examination before issuing the policy, ensuring that any potential defects or issues are resolved before the sale is completed. This helps streamline the transaction process, providing confidence to all parties involved.
  4. Providing legal defense: If any third-party claim arises after the property sale, a title insurance company is responsible for providing legal defense and representation for the policyholder. The insurer will cover any legal expenses or settlement costs, up to the policy limit, and may even pay to correct any defects in the title.

Types of Title Insurance Policies

There are two primary types of title insurance policies: owner’s title insurance and lender’s title insurance. While both policies generally serve the same purpose of protecting against title-related issues, they are designed to protect different parties in a real estate transaction.

Owner’s Title Insurance

Owner’s title insurance, sometimes referred to as the buyer’s policy, protects the buyer’s interest in the property. This type of policy safeguards the homeowner from any financial losses resulting from title defects, such as liens, encumbrances, or errors in public records that were not discovered during the title examination process.

Owner’s title insurance policies are typically purchased by the buyer, either as a requirement of the purchase agreement or at the recommendation of their real estate attorney or agent. The one-time premium for an owner’s policy is usually paid at closing and offers coverage for as long as the policyholder or their heirs retain an interest in the property.

Lender’s Title Insurance

Lender’s title insurance, also known as a loan policy, is typically required by mortgage lenders to protect their interests in the property. This type of policy covers the lender’s financial interest against any title-related issues that may affect their security interest in the real estate.

Although the buyer usually pays for the lender’s policy as part of their closing costs, it is important to note that this policy offers no protection to the buyer themselves – it only benefits the mortgage lender. In the event of a claim, the policy will only pay out to the extent of the outstanding balance of the loan, and not to the actual value of the property. That is why it is crucial for buyers to also obtain an owner’s title insurance policy for their own protection.

Preliminary Title Report

A preliminary title report is a crucial component of a title insurance policy. This report is generated after a thorough examination of public records, such as recorded documents, liens, and judgments, to determine the current ownership status of a property. The report includes a comprehensive list of all current encumbrances, liens, and other limitations that could potentially hinder the transfer of ownership. The preliminary title report is significant as it enables buyers and lenders to be aware of any issues that may affect the property’s title and provides an opportunity to clear them before closing.

A typical preliminary title report includes the following information:
– The property’s legal description
– Current owner of the property
– Outstanding mortgages, liens, or judgments against the property
– Easements or encroachments affecting the property
– Title and recording defects or discrepancies
– Pending litigation or bankruptcy proceedings involving the property

Title Commitment

A title commitment is a document issued by a title insurance company that details the terms and conditions under which it will issue a title insurance policy. The purpose of the title commitment is to provide formal notice of the insurance company’s willingness to issue a policy, subject to the elimination or resolution of any exceptions noted in the commitment.

The title commitment consists of the following schedules:

  • Schedule A: This includes basic information about the transaction, such as the proposed insured amount, the current owner’s name, the legal description of the property, and the proposed insured party’s name (typically the buyer and the lender).
  • Schedule B-I: This section lists specific requirements that must be met before the policy will be issued. Such requirements can include paying off existing liens, providing a satisfactory survey, or clearing any title defects.
  • Schedule B-II: This section lists exceptions to the policy coverage, including easements, restrictive covenants, or rights of parties in possession (e.g., tenants). These exceptions will not be covered by the title insurance policy, and the insured will bear the risk associated with them.

Owner’s Title Insurance Policy

An owner’s title insurance policy ensures that the owner has clear and marketable title to the property, free from financial encumbrances and defects, excluding any exceptions listed in the policy. This policy protects the owner from potential future claims arising from issues such as fraud, forgery, undisclosed heirs, mistakes in the public record, or other title defects.

Owner’s title insurance policies provide coverage up to the purchase price of the property and last as long as the insured or their heirs retain an interest in the property. In the event a claim is made against the title, the title insurance company will either defend the owner’s rights in court or compensate the owner for the covered losses up to the policy limits.

Lender’s Title Insurance Policy

A lender’s title insurance policy protects the mortgage lender’s interest in the property by providing coverage for the outstanding loan balance. Similar to the owner’s policy, the lender’s policy covers risks such as fraud, forgery, undisclosed heirs, and mistakes in the public record, excluding any exceptions noted in the policy.

The lender’s title insurance policy coverage decreases as the loan balance is paid down and terminates when the loan is fully repaid. Unlike an owner’s policy, a lender’s policy does not provide any direct protection to the property owner – it only covers the lender’s interest. However, most lenders require borrowers to purchase a lender’s title insurance policy as part of the mortgage closing process, ensuring that their investment is protected.

Title Policy Coverage

When purchasing a property, it’s essential to have a clear understanding of the different types of title policy coverage available. A title policy protects the property owner and the lender by ensuring that the property has a clear title and the owner has the proper rights to the property. These policies help prevent potential issues such as liens, encumbrances, and ownership disputes. It’s important to know the differences between standard and extended coverage policies when choosing the best policy for your situation.

Standard Coverage

A standard coverage title policy provides basic protection for a property owner or a lender. It covers the most common types of issues and concerns that can arise in the process of transferring property ownership. Some of these covered risks include:

  1. Fraudulent or forged documents: If a transfer of ownership is based on fraudulent or forged documents, the policy will protect the insured owner or lender.
  2. Errors in public records: If there are mistakes in the public records, like recording errors, the standard policy will cover the loss arising from these errors.
  3. Undisclosed heirs: If a previous owner’s unknown heirs attempt to claim ownership of the property, the policy will cover the costs of defending the claim and compensating for any loss incurred by the insured.
  4. Improperly executed documents: If a previous transfer of title or lien release was not properly documented, the policy will cover the cost to fix the problem and compensate for any losses.
  5. Liens and encumbrances: In most cases, a standard policy will cover any undiscovered liens or encumbrances on a property up to the policy’s coverage limits.

Extended Coverage

An extended coverage title policy provides additional protection for property owners and lenders beyond what is offered by standard coverage. This type of policy is typically more expensive but can provide extra security in certain situations. Some of the additional covered risks include:

  1. Survey errors: If a survey error leads to a dispute over property lines or easements, the extended coverage policy will cover the costs to resolve the issue.
  2. Unrecorded liens: An extended policy offers protection against unrecorded liens, such as mechanic’s liens, that might not appear in public records.
  3. Encroachments: This coverage insures owners against encroachments, such as a neighbor’s fence, building, or driveway that extends onto the insured property.
  4. Mineral and water rights: In some cases, extended coverage policies can protect against issues related to mineral or water rights disputes that could affect ownership or usage of the property.

Title Policy Exclusions

Title policy exclusions are items that the policy does not cover. Exclusions can vary depending on the specifics of a property, but some common exclusions include:

  1. Laws, ordinances, or governmental regulations: A title policy generally does not cover losses incurred due to restrictions set forth by local or federal governments.
  2. Easements, rights of way, or other encumbrances not shown in the public records: These items are not covered unless they are disclosed or discovered during the title search process.
  3. Adverse possession: The policy does not cover issues related to adverse possession claims, where someone else claims the right to the property based on continuous use or occupancy.

Title Policy Exceptions

Title policy exceptions are specific items that the policy will not cover, even if these items are typically covered under standard or extended policies. Exceptions are listed on the title commitment, and they are identified during the title search process. Examples of common exceptions include:

  1. Deed restrictions: If the property is subject to specific restrictions, like limitations on construction, these will be listed as exceptions.
  2. Easements and rights of way: If any easements or rights of way, such as those for utilities, are discovered during the title search, they will be listed as exceptions.
  3. Liens and encumbrances: If any liens or encumbrances, such as property taxes or special assessments, are discovered in the title search, they will be listed as exceptions.

Title Policy Endorsements

Title policy endorsements are additional protections that can be added to a title policy for an extra cost. They can help to cover unique situations or risks not covered by standard or extended policies. Some common endorsements include:

  1. Adjustable rate mortgage endorsement: This endorsement protects the lender if the borrower’s adjustable-rate mortgage increases over time.
  2. Condominium endorsement: This covers potential issues specific to condominium ownership, such as common area disputes or assessment liens.
  3. Environmental protection endorsement: This endorsement covers the property owner or lender if an environmental issue, like contamination or hazardous waste, affects the property’s value or marketability.

When choosing a title policy, it’s crucial to understand the specific coverages, exclusions, exceptions, and endorsements available to make the best decision for your property ownership and financing needs.

Overview of the Title Search and Examination Process

The title search and examination process is a critical step in any real estate transaction, as it helps to ensure that the buyer is obtaining a clear and marketable title to the property. The main goal of a title search is to uncover any liens, judgments, or other potential issues that may impact the buyer’s ownership rights or the seller’s ability to convey a clear title. A title examination, on the other hand, involves a thorough review of the title search results to identify any title defects, errors or omissions and devise a plan to resolve them.

Why is it important?

A title search and examination is indispensable for various reasons. First and foremost, it safeguards the buyer’s investment by ensuring that they receive a clean and marketable title to the property without any hidden issues. It also protects the buyer’s lender, who typically requires a title search and examination to minimize their financial risk.

In addition, a title search can reveal critical information about the property, including any easements, restrictions, or rights-of-way that may impact the property’s use and value. A comprehensive title examination allows for the identification and resolution of possible defects or encumbrances on the title before closing, ensuring a smooth and successful transaction.

Key Steps in the Title Search and Examination Process

1. Collect and Review Property Information

The title search process begins by gathering pertinent information about the property, such as the legal description, location, property identification number, and seller’s information. This information is typically found on documents like the purchase agreement or tax records.

2. Conduct a Public Records Search

Using the property information gathered in the previous step, a professional title examiner or abstractor will conduct a comprehensive search of public records, reviewing the property’s chain of title, deed history, and any relevant documents. This includes researching land records, court judgments, tax records, and any other documents that may reflect potential issues on the property’s title.

3. Identify and Analyze Potential Title Issues

The title examiner or abstractor will review the documents uncovered during the public records search to identify potential issues or defects on the property’s title. This could include liens such as mortgage or tax liens, judgments against the seller, easements, encroachments, or other encumbrances.

4. Resolve Title Issues

Once any defects or issues have been identified, the title company, buyer, and/or seller will work together to resolve them. This might involve obtaining releases of liens, correcting erroneous legal descriptions, or obtaining necessary signatures on missing documents. This step is crucial in ensuring that the buyer ultimately receives a clear and marketable title.

5. Issue a Preliminary Title Report or Commitment

After completing the title search and resolving any outstanding issues, the title company will typically issue a preliminary title report or commitment to the buyer and their lender. This document outlines the terms and conditions under which the title company will issue a title insurance policy once the transaction is complete. It provides crucial information about the current state of the title, any remaining encumbrances or exceptions, and any additional requirements that must be met before closing.

6. Closing and Issuance of Title Insurance

Upon successful completion of the title examination process and resolution of any outstanding issues, the transaction can proceed to closing. At closing, the title company or attorney will ensure that all outstanding liens and encumbrances are paid or satisfied and that the proper documentation is recorded in the public records. Once the transaction is complete, the title company will then issue a title insurance policy to the buyer and their lender, protecting them against any potential future title issues that may arise.

Public Records Search

Public records searches are essential when it comes to getting accurate, reliable, and up-to-date information about a particular property. Public records encompass a wide range of data held at various government departments, such as county recorders’ offices, state agencies, or even federal agencies. These documents are available to the public, and in some cases, they can be accessed digitally for free.

There are several reasons why someone might want to conduct a public records search on a property, such as during a real estate transaction or when looking for property investment opportunities. The information gathered helps in making informed decisions and minimizing risk.

Some of the information that can be sourced through public records include property description, land surveys, ownership history, tax information, and property liens and encumbrances.

Land and Property Description

One of the critical pieces of information that can be obtained from public records is an accurate and detailed description of the land and property in question. This information is crucial for both buyers and sellers, as it helps them understand the precise nature of the property, its boundaries, and its zoning classification.

Land and property descriptions are typically recorded with the county recorder’s office, which maintains documents such as deeds, surveys, and plats. These documents provide essential details such as:

  • Property dimensions and boundaries: This includes data on the length and width of the property, as well as specific boundary markers.
  • Legal description: This is a detailed description of the property’s location and its boundaries, usually expressed in terms of metes (measures) and bounds (property boundaries). The legal description is used to identify the property accurately and is required when transferring property ownership.
  • Zoning classification: This information is essential for potential buyers, as it determines how the land can be used (e.g., for residential, commercial, or agricultural purposes) and may impact the property’s value or development potential.

Ownership History

Another essential piece of information that can be obtained from public records is the property’s ownership history. This information provides you with an understanding of how the property has changed hands over the years and may reveal important details about past transactions, disputes, or any other issues that might have affected the property’s value or desirability.

The ownership history is often available via the county recorder’s office, and it typically includes:

  • Chain of title: This is a sequence of historical property transfers that traces the property’s ownership from the original grantor to the current owner. A thorough examination of the chain of title can help identify any potential issues or discrepancies, such as gaps in the chain or conflicting claims of ownership.
  • Sale history: This includes data on previous sales transactions, such as sale prices, dates, and buyer and seller information. Analyzing the sale history can provide insights into the property’s past value and the potential for appreciation or depreciation.
  • Mortgage history: This information might show any mortgages or loans taken out on the property, which could reveal details about the owner’s financial history and stability.

Property Liens and Encumbrances

One crucial aspect of conducting a public records search is to identify any property liens and encumbrances that may influence the value, marketability, or transferability of the property. Liens arise when a property is used as collateral for a debt, while encumbrances refer to restrictions and limitations on the property’s use, such as easements or covenants.

Some common property liens and encumbrances that can be found in public records include:

  • Tax liens: If a property owner fails to pay their property taxes, the government may place a lien on the property until the debt is paid. A tax lien can be a significant concern for buyers, as it must be satisfied before the property can be sold.
  • Mechanics’ liens: Contractors or suppliers who perform work on a property but are not paid can file a mechanics’ lien to secure payment. Like tax liens, mechanics’ liens must be resolved before a property can be sold.
  • Judgments and lawsuits: If a property owner is involved in a legal dispute, such as a lawsuit, a judgment lien may be placed on the property as part of the court’s ruling. This lien could affect the property’s value and marketability.
  • Easements and covenants: Easements grant specific rights to another party to use a portion of a property for a specific purpose (e.g., allowing a neighboring property owner to access their land through yours). Covenants are agreements between property owners that dictate how the property can be used or developed. Both easements and covenants can affect property value and usage.

By thoroughly researching public records for the property you’re interested in, you can gain a deeper understanding of its history, value, and potential issues. Careful analysis of this information will enable you to make informed decisions and minimize risk when engaging in real estate transactions or property investments.

Costs of Title Insurance

Title insurance is an essential one-time expense that protects a property owner from financial loss related to title disputes, defects, or liens. The cost of title insurance varies depending on several factors, such as the type of policy, property location, property value, and the complexity of the title search process.

There are two primary types of title insurance policies: owner’s policy and lender’s policy. The owner’s policy protects the property owner from potential title issues, while the lender’s policy safeguards the financial institution providing the mortgage loan. Typically, the homebuyer pays for the lender’s policy, and the seller covers the owner’s policy.

The cost of title insurance premiums also depends on the property location. Each state has its unique regulatory structure, which affects the overall cost of the policy. Some states have standardized rates, while others have deregulated markets, allowing title insurance companies to set their prices competitively. In addition, some states may require the payment of additional fees, such as title search costs and underwriter fees, which can impact the overall expense.

The property value is another crucial factor in determining the cost of title insurance. Generally, higher property values translate to higher premiums, as the amount of potential claim payouts increases accordingly. However, the actual calculation method may vary between title insurance companies.

Finally, the complexity of the title search process may influence the cost of the policy. A more complex search may require additional time, expertise, and resources, leading to higher expenses for the title insurance company. In turn, these increased costs may be passed along to the property owner through higher premiums or fees.

Payment Methods and Timing of Title Insurance

Title insurance is a one-time payment made at the closing of a real estate transaction. The payment is typically included in the closing costs, which may be paid by the buyer, the seller, or a combination of both. It is essential to understand who is responsible for covering the title insurance premium to avoid unexpected expenses during the closing process.

During closing negotiations, both parties can decide who will pay for the title insurance. In some cases, the seller may agree to bear the cost of the owner’s policy as an incentive for the buyer, while the buyer covers the lender’s policy. Conversely, the buyer may opt to pay for both policies if they feel it is in their best interest.

Once the payment method is determined, the title insurance company will process the payment at the close of the transaction. The funds are usually collected by the closing agent or attorney, who ensures that all necessary payments, including title insurance premiums, are satisfied before disbursing the remaining proceeds to the respective parties.

The timing of title insurance payment is crucial, as policy coverage begins once the payment is made and the property title transferred. However, coverage under a title insurance policy is retroactive, meaning it protects property owners from losses related to events that occurred before the issuance of the policy. This ensures that the property owner’s interests are adequately safeguarded even if potential title issues arise after the closing.

In conclusion, understanding the costs and payment methods associated with title insurance is crucial for both property buyers and sellers. By being informed about the various factors that influence the cost of title insurance and the process of paying premiums, parties involved in a real estate transaction can make informed decisions to protect their interests and achieve a successful closing.

Cost Factors and Variables

The cost of title insurance can vary significantly depending on a variety of factors and variables. It is essential for customers to be aware of the different aspects that can influence the price of title insurance so they can make more informed decisions when purchasing a policy. Some of the most common factors affecting title insurance costs include:

  1. State regulations: Title insurance rates are regulated in many states, and the pricing structures may vary between jurisdictions. State laws often dictate the fees for these services, which can influence the title insurance premium a customer pays.

  2. Loan amount/property value: The larger the loan amount, or the higher the property value, the higher the cost of title insurance is likely to be. This is because the potential financial risk and liability for both the lender and the title insurer increases with the property’s value.

  3. Coverage: There are generally two types of title insurance policies – a Lender’s Policy, which covers the lender’s interest in the property, and an Owner’s Policy, which covers the property owner’s interest. Owner’s Policies typically cost more than Lender’s Policies, as they provide coverage for the full value of the property rather than just the loan amount.

  4. Location: The cost of title insurance can also be impacted by the location of the property. Certain geographical areas may have a higher incidence of title claims, which can lead to higher insurance costs. Additionally, the cost of searching and examining the public records to determine the title’s status may vary depending on the location.

  5. Underwriting: Underwriting is the process of evaluating the risk presented by a particular property transaction and setting the appropriate premium for the title insurance. This process may involve considering factors such as the property’s age, prior ownership history, and the presence of judgments or liens against the property. A more complex underwriting process may result in higher title insurance costs.

One-time Premium

One of the unique features of title insurance is that it is a one-time premium paid at the time of closing the real estate transaction. Unlike other types of insurance, there are no ongoing premium payments required for title insurance. The coverage continues for as long as the insured party owns the property, and in some cases, it can even extend to their heirs. This one-time premium provides protection against any claims or issues that may arise concerning the property’s title during the course of ownership.

The one-time premium cost may be influenced by the factors mentioned earlier, such as state regulations, loan amount or property value, coverage type, location, and underwriting considerations. However, the benefit of having one-time premium insurance lies in not having to worry about the recurring cost, providing long-term financial security and peace of mind.

Discounts and Savings

There are a few ways customers can save on title insurance costs. Two of the most common discounts and savings include the Simultaneous Issue Discount and Reissue Rate Discount.

Simultaneous Issue Discount

When both a Lender’s Policy and an Owner’s Policy are purchased in a single transaction, the insurance company may offer a discount on the combined premiums. This simultaneous issue discount helps save money for the homebuyer and is a common practice in most real estate transactions. The customer will receive the coverage of both policies but will pay a lower overall price than if they were to purchase the policies separately.

Reissue Rate Discount

If a property is being refinanced or has been sold within a certain period, the title insurer may offer a reissue rate discount on the new policy. This is because the previous policyholder has already conducted a title search and examination, reducing the risk of undiscovered title-related issues. To qualify for a reissue rate discount, the customer typically needs to provide a copy of the existing title policy or the necessary documentation to show the property’s recent transfer. This discount can result in significant savings compared to purchasing a completely new title insurance policy.

Common Title Issues

There are numerous title issues a homeowner or property buyer may face, which are often discovered only after the transaction has been made. This has the potential to cause significant legal and financial complications. Thus, it is important to be aware of these potential issues and take necessary precautions to protect your investment. Below are some of the most common title issues:


A lien occurs when a party claims ownership or a right to a property as security for a debt. Common types of liens include mortgage liens, tax liens, and judgment liens. For instance, if the previous owner of the property owed taxes or had outstanding debts, the creditors might have filed a lien against the property. After purchasing the property, you may become responsible for clearing these liens, which could be both costly and time-consuming.

Errors in Public Records

Clerical errors or mistakes in public records can lead to inaccurate information regarding property ownership. Such mistakes can raise questions about the validity of the title and put your ownership rights at risk. For example, if a previous transaction was recorded incorrectly, it may lead to the rights of one or more previous owners being affected.

Encroachments or Boundary Disputes

Boundary disputes or encroachments occur when a neighbor claims that a portion of your land actually belongs to them or vice versa, often due to inaccurate surveys or conflicting deed descriptions. This can lead to costly disputes and legal battles with neighbors or necessitate the need for a new survey to establish the accurate property boundaries.

Forgery and Fraudulent Claims

Forgery and fraud can happen when a person tries to sell or mortgage a property they don’t actually own, or when an individual forges a will or a lien release. These actions may lead to someone fraudulently claiming ownership, which can create a troubling situation for the new owner, who may lose their ownership rights or face expensive legal battles.

Undiscovered Heirs or Unresolved Estate Issues

In some cases, heirs of previous property owners may come forward and claim ownership of the property. This can happen if the property wasn’t distributed properly through probate or if an heir was unaware of their rights to the property. Such claims can put your ownership rights in jeopardy and lead to lengthy and costly legal disputes.

How Title Insurance Protects You

Title insurance is designed to protect you from the potential risks and financial loss associated with the abovementioned title issues. While it is not compulsory in most cases, it is a wise investment for any property buyer. Here’s how title insurance can help protect you:

Thorough Title Examination

When you purchase title insurance, the title company conducts a thorough examination of the property’s public records to identify any potential problems or defects in the property’s title. They check for liens, boundary disputes, errors in public records, and other potential issues that could threaten your ownership rights.

Financial Protection and Legal Assistance

Title insurance protects you from financial loss arising from title issues, such as the costs of settling liens, legal fees, and other expenses associated with addressing title problems. If a problem arises with your title, the title insurance company will bear the costs of resolving the issue, up to the policy limit. This provides you with peace of mind, knowing that your investment is protected.

Negotiating and Settling Disputes

Title insurance companies have skilled professionals who are experienced in negotiating with third parties such as lienholders, heirs, or other claimants, in order to settle disputes and preserve your ownership rights. They can also assist with clearing issues from public records, establishing the accurate property boundaries, and other tasks related to resolving title issues.

By investing in title insurance, you can protect yourself from the financial and legal fallout of potential title issues that may arise in the future. It is an essential component of safeguarding your investment and provides you with peace of mind as a property owner.

Undisclosed Heirs

One of the primary risks associated with purchasing a property is the possibility of undisclosed heirs. When a property is transferred through a will, there may be unknown or missing heirs that could emerge later with a claim to the property. This can lead to legal disputes over ownership and can ultimately affect the property’s value.

Undisclosed heirs typically arise in situations where the deceased’s will was either not properly executed or not updated. This could be due to a variety of reasons, including a lack of communication between family members, estrangement, or an oversight in updating the will after changes in family circumstances.

To protect oneself from potential claims by undisclosed heirs, it is crucial to exercise due diligence during the property buying process. This includes ensuring that the seller has a clear title to the property, verifying the accuracy of the legal description of the property, and conducting thorough research on the property’s history.

It is also important to obtain title insurance when purchasing a property, as this can provide financial protection against claims made by an undisclosed heir. Title insurance companies typically conduct a title search to identify any potential issues or risks, and they can provide legal defense against claims made against your property.

Liens and Encumbrances

Another common risk associated with purchasing a property is the possibility of liens and encumbrances. Liens are a form of security interest that is granted over a property, often as a means of securing a debt or other obligation. Encumbrances, on the other hand, are limitations on property rights, such as easements, restrictions, and conditions.

Liens and encumbrances can impact the value and usability of a property, making it essential to address them before completing a property transaction. Failure to do so can result in the buyer being held responsible for the outstanding debts or limitations on the property.

To guard against these risks, it is important to conduct a thorough title search before purchasing a property. This process helps to identify any existing liens, encumbrances, or other issues that could affect the property’s ownership or usage.

Title insurance can also provide protection in cases where liens and encumbrances are discovered after purchasing a property. It can cover the cost of settling these issues or provide legal defense against claims related to these encumbrances.

Boundary Disputes

Boundary disputes are another risk associated with property ownership. These disputes can arise when property owners disagree about the proper location of their property’s boundaries, leading to legal disputes that can be time-consuming and expensive to resolve.

Several factors can contribute to boundary disputes, including inaccuracies or errors in property descriptions or survey maps and natural changes to the landscape, such as erosion or shifting waterways. Additionally, conflicting interpretations of property descriptions or surveys can further complicate matters.

To prevent boundary disputes, it is essential to obtain a comprehensive survey of the property before purchasing. This survey should accurately depict the property’s boundaries and any existing encroachments or easements. Additionally, it is a good idea to communicate with neighboring property owners to ensure that they are aware of and agree with these boundaries.

Title insurance can also provide protection in the event of a boundary dispute. Many policies cover the legal costs associated with defending a boundary dispute, as well as potentially covering the costs of resolving the dispute.

Forgery and Fraud

Forgery and fraud are another risk associated with property transactions. These risks can present themselves in a variety of ways, such as falsified documents, fraudulent statements, or even impersonation of property owners.

It is essential to be vigilant during the property purchasing process to protect against these risks. Verify the identity of sellers and ensure that all documentation related to the property is accurate and in order. Additionally, be diligent in reviewing all aspects of the transaction to detect any potential discrepancies or inconsistencies that may indicate fraud or forgery.

Title insurance can also provide protection in cases of forgery or fraud. Many policies cover the insured homeowner for the financial impact of any forgery or fraud discovered after the property has been purchased. This can include covering the legal costs associated with defending the property owner’s interests.

Defective Recordings

Defective recordings are another risk that can be encountered when buying a property. These occur when there are errors or omissions in the public record relating to a property transaction, such as inaccurate or incomplete information in deeds, mortgages, or other transaction documents.

These defects can have a significant impact on a property’s ownership and value. For example, if a mortgage was not properly recorded or released, it may still appear as a lien on the property, creating complications during the buying process.

To protect against these risks, it is important to conduct a thorough title search before purchasing a property. A title search can help identify any potential defects in the public record, allowing them to be addressed and resolved before completing the transaction.

Title insurance can also provide protection against defective recordings. Many title insurance policies will cover the costs associated with correcting these defects or provide a legal defense against claims arising from them. This can provide peace of mind and financial protection for property owners in the event that issues with the public record are discovered after the purchase has been completed.

Introduction to Claims and Dispute Resolution

Claims and dispute resolution are essential aspects of any contractual agreement, business relationship or project. A claim is a request, demand or assertion for compensation, payment, damages or any other form of relief due to an alleged breach, non-performance or non-compliance with the terms and conditions of a contract or legal obligation. Dispute resolution refers to the various methods by which parties can resolve conflicts, disagreements, misunderstandings or disputes that may arise due to differences in interpretation, execution or application of the terms, provisions or conditions of their agreements.

Effective and efficient resolution of claims and disputes is crucial for maintaining and preserving business relationships, trust between parties, and ensuring timely completion of projects or transactions. By having well-defined processes and strategies in place, parties can significantly reduce the likelihood of conflicts escalating into disputes or litigation proceedings, which can be time-consuming, costly and damaging to their reputation, relationships, and future prospects. This section will discuss the significance, types and methods of claim and dispute resolution, as well as the roles, responsibilities and best practices for parties involved in these processes.

Types of Claims and Disputes

There are various types and categories of claims and disputes that can emerge in different contractual, transactional or project contexts. Some examples include:

Contractual Claims

These arise due to alleged breaches, non-performance or non-compliance with the terms, provisions or conditions of a contract between parties. They may involve issues such as payment claims, delay claims, performance claims, or contractual remedy claims.

Tort Claims

These are based on alleged harm or injury resulting from one party’s negligence, recklessness, or malicious conduct. Common types include personal injury claims, property damage claims, and defamation claims.

Statutory Claims

These claims are grounded in alleged violations of federal, state or local statutes, regulations, or laws. Examples include employment, discrimination, environmental, regulatory compliance or financial claims.

Intellectual Property Claims

These involve disputes over ownership, infringement or misappropriation of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets or other forms of intellectual property protection.

Methods of Dispute Resolution

There are several methods available for parties to resolve claims and disputes, either outside or through the court system. Some common tools include:


Involves direct communication and discussion between the disputing parties or their representatives to reach a mutually satisfactory resolution without the need for a third-party intermediary or formal legal process.


A structured process in which a neutral third party, known as the mediator, facilitates dialogue between contested parties to help them reach a voluntary agreement.


A formal, binding process in which disputing parties present their cases before an impartial arbitrator or arbitration panel, who then renders a final decision that is enforceable in court.


The process of taking a legal dispute to court, where a judge or jury will evaluate the evidence, examine the law, and make a judgment.

Roles, Responsibilities and Best Practices

In order to ensure an effective and efficient resolution of claims and disputes, parties involved in the process should follow certain roles, responsibilities and best practices, including:


Parties should maintain accurate and comprehensive records of contracts, correspondence, transactions, decisions, and other relevant data. This will help establish the facts and issues in the event of a dispute, and support the parties’ positions during negotiations, mediation, arbitration or litigation.


Open, clear and honest communication between parties is essential for managing and resolving conflicts or disputes. This involves actively listening to each other’s concerns, expressing empathy, and seeking clarification to avoid misunderstandings or assumptions.

Proactive Cooperation

Parties should actively cooperate in the resolution process by sharing information and documents, participating in negotiations or meetings, and seeking possible solutions or compromise.

Legal Advice

Obtain guidance and representation from competent legal counsel as needed, especially in complex or high-stakes disputes. This can help protect the parties’ rights and interests, and ensure compliance with applicable laws, regulations or procedures.

Filing a Title Insurance Claim

Title insurance is essential for property owners to protect their financial interests in the event of title disputes arising from liens, encumbrances, or defects in the title that were not discovered during the title search. If you suspect that there is a potential title issue with your property, it is vital that you promptly file a title insurance claim to ensure protection and proper resolution of the issue.

Notify Your Title Insurance Company

The first and foremost step is to notify your title insurance company about the issue as soon as you identify it. Review your title insurance policy to understand the coverage, exclusions, and procedures for filing a claim. You may need to refer to your policy number and other essential details while contacting the insurer.

The notification can be made by phone, email, or a letter addressed to the title insurer’s claims department. Ensure that you provide details about the property, a description of the issue, and any supporting documentation, such as a copy of the title report, signed purchase agreement, or other correspondence related to the property.

Documentation and Forms

After notifying the claim department of the title insurance company, they will provide a claim form, which must be completed and submitted along with any necessary supporting documentation. Essential documents may include:

  1. Original title insurance policy.
  2. Purchase and sale agreement.
  3. Documents related to the title issue (e.g., lien notices, court judgments, or neighbor disputes).
  4. Letter from an attorney or another professional who advised on the title issue.

Completing the claim form accurately and providing all the required documents will expedite the claim process and enhance its chances of being approved.

Investigation and Settlement Process

Title insurance claims follow a thorough process of investigation and evaluation to determine the legitimacy and extent of the title defects or issues.

Claim Investigation

The title insurance company will assign a claims adjuster or attorney to scrutinize the claim and the supporting documents. They investigate the nature and validity of the title issue fully. This investigation might involve reviewing the title search, conducting an additional title search, and examining the chain of title. It will help determine the type of claim and provide appropriate solutions which can include monetary compensation or curative action.

Claim Evaluation

Upon concluding the investigation, the claim adjuster will evaluate the claim based on the findings to assess whether the issue falls under the coverage of the title insurance policy. Exclusions and exceptions to the policy will be considered and analyzed to decide if the claim is valid or not.


If the title insurance company approves the claim, they will determine the appropriate course of action to settle the claim. They may:

  1. Pay an amount to cover any losses or damages caused by the defect in the title.
  2. Take action to clear the title defect, like filing court documents or settling disputes with third parties.
  3. Negotiate a settlement with the other party involved in the title dispute.

The settlement process may take anywhere from a few weeks to several months, depending on the complexity of the title issue.

Negotiations and Litigation Support

In some circumstances, a title insurance claim may not be resolved through the investigation and settlement process. In these cases, negotiations and litigation support will be necessary to achieve resolution.


Negotiations may arise if the title issue involves multiple parties, such as a lien holder or a neighbor with a property line dispute. In these situations, the title insurance company will collaborate with the property owner and the other involved parties to reach a mutually acceptable solution. It is crucial to maintain open communication and collaboration to achieve a satisfactory resolution for all parties.

Litigation Support

If the title issue escalates to the point of litigation, your title insurance policy will provide valuable support during this process. The title insurance company will work with legal counsel, cover legal expenses, and provide expert witnesses as necessary to defend your property rights. Additionally, the insurer will handle any eventual damages awarded by the court.

Overall, filing a title insurance claim and navigating the corresponding processes requires diligence and patience. Following the appropriate steps and maintaining frequent communication with your title insurer will ensure you receive the necessary protection and support in resolving any title disputes relating to your property.

Understand the Purpose of Title Insurance

Title insurance is a form of indemnity insurance that protects the holder from financial loss sustained from defects in a title to a property. It is designed to ensure that the buyer and lender (if applicable) are protected against any previous claims or liens on the property. Title insurance companies will conduct a title search and examination to identify any potential risks or issues that may arise from the property’s past. The title insurance policy will cover the insured party for any covered losses and legal fees that may occur due to a title dispute.

Research and Compare Title Insurance Companies

When choosing a title insurance company, it is important to conduct thorough research and compare different companies to find the best fit. Some factors to consider when comparing title insurance companies include:

  1. Reputation: Look for a company with a solid reputation and positive reviews from previous clients. This can be done through online research, word of mouth, and referrals from real estate professionals.
  2. Experience: Make sure the company has experience in handling title insurance for properties in your area. This is important because title insurance requirements and procedures may vary from one region to another.
  3. Customer Service: Choose a company that offers excellent customer service and support throughout the entire process. It is essential to have clear communication and prompt responses to any inquiries or concerns.
  4. Pricing: Compare the fees and premiums charged by different companies to make sure you are getting a fair price for the services provided. Remember that the cheapest option may not always be the best choice, but it is important to ensure you are getting value for your money.
  5. Additional Services: Some title insurance companies may offer additional services, such as escrow and closing services, which can make the transaction process smoother and more convenient. If these services are important to you, consider looking for a company that offers them.

Understand the Different Types of Title Insurance Policies

There are two main types of title insurance policies: Owner’s and Lender’s policies. An Owner’s policy is designed to protect the property owner from any title defects, while a Lender’s policy is meant to protect the lender in case of a title issue arises that affects the property’s value or the lender’s ability to foreclose.

It is important to understand the differences between these policies and which one(s) you may need for your transaction. If you are obtaining a mortgage, your lender will likely require a Lender’s policy as a condition of the loan. However, an Owner’s policy is optional but highly recommended to protect your investment in the property.

Ask Questions and Clarify Any Concerns

Before committing to a particular title insurance company, make sure to ask any questions and clarify any concerns you may have about the process, policy, pricing, or any other aspect of the service. A reputable company should have knowledgeable representatives who are willing and able to answer your questions and provide clear explanations.

Some questions to consider asking include:

  1. How long does the title search and examination process take?
  2. What specific issues or risks does the proposed policy cover?
  3. Are there any policy endorsements or additional coverages available that may be beneficial based on my specific situation or property characteristics?
  4. Will the company be responsible for resolving any title issues that arise during the transaction?
  5. How are the title insurance premiums and fees structured, and when are they due?

By thoroughly researching and comparing title insurance companies, understanding the types of policies available, and asking questions to clarify any concerns, you will be well-equipped to choose a title insurance company that best serves your needs and protects your investment in your property.

Reputation and Experience

One of the most important considerations when choosing a title company is its reputation and experience. The reputation of a title company can have a big impact on the overall outcome of your transaction, and working with a company that has successfully navigated through countless transactions can give you peace of mind. There are several factors to consider when evaluating a title company’s reputation and experience.

Years in Business

A title company with years of experience in the industry is more likely to have dealt with a wide variety of situations and issues that can arise throughout the title and escrow process. They will have a better understanding of the ever-changing laws and regulations governing the industry, and they will be better equipped to handle any unique circumstances that may arise during your transaction.

Customer Reviews

Before you choose a title company, it’s essential to read customer reviews and testimonials. These can provide valuable insight into other people’s personal experiences with the company and help give you a better idea of what to expect. Reviews can be found on business websites, social media platforms, or independent review sites. Look for consistency in the feedback, and take note of any recurring concerns.

Referrals and Recommendations

Word of mouth referrals are often an excellent source of information when looking for a trustworthy title company. Ask your friends, family, or real estate agent if they have any recommendations based on their own experiences. Additionally, you can contact your local or state bar association to see if they have any recommendations.

Financial Stability

It’s important to choose a title company that is financially stable, as the company will be handling the funds for your transaction. To assess a company’s financial stability, you can take into consideration the following factors:

Underwriter Ratings

A title company’s underwriter rating is an evaluation of its financial strength and stability. These ratings are typically published by rating agencies such as A.M. Best, Standard & Poor’s, or Moody’s. Look for a title company with an “A” rating to ensure that they are financially stable and capable of protecting your interests.

Years of operation

As mentioned earlier, a title company that has been in business for many years is generally more likely to be financially stable. Long-standing companies often have more experience managing complex transactions and are more likely to have a solid financial foundation.

Closing Services

The title company you choose should offer a comprehensive range of closing services to ensure that your transaction is handled professionally and accurately. Some services to look for include:

Title Search and Examination

The title company should conduct a thorough title search and examination to identify any issues that may affect the ownership of the property, such as liens, easements, or other encumbrances.

Escrow Services

A reputable title company will act as an impartial third party to hold and manage the funds and documents involved in the transaction. They should keep all parties informed and ensure timely disbursements.

Title Insurance

Title insurance is an important component of the closing process. It protects you against future claims or disputes regarding ownership of the property. Ensure the title company offers this service and works with reputable underwriters.

Customer Service

Last but not least, consider the title company’s customer service. Your title company should be responsive, efficient, and able to address your needs and concerns throughout the process.


The title company should be easily reachable by phone, email, or in-person appointments. They should also be able to provide clear communication and timely updates on the status of your transaction.


Choose a title company that exhibits professionalism in all aspects of their operations. This includes having knowledgeable and experienced staff, well-maintained offices, and the ability to handle any issues or concerns with efficiency and a positive attitude.

Review the Preliminary Title Report

Before finalizing your title insurance policy, you should thoroughly review the preliminary title report. This is an essential document that provides you with a snapshot of the property’s title before the close of escrow. It discloses the ownership history, tax liens, easements, restrictions, and other encumbrances that might affect title to the property.

Make sure that all the information on the preliminary title report is accurate and up-to-date. Review the legal description of the property, the spelling of the names of the current owners, and the correct listing of any encumbrances. If you discover an error or inconsistency, it’s crucial to have it resolved before you purchase the title insurance policy.

Additionally, it’s essential to conduct a thorough analysis of the chain of title, which includes all the recorded transfers of ownership of the property. Check for missing documents or inconsistencies in the transfer deeds to ensure that there are no potential claims against your property.

Resolve Any Title Issues

Once you have reviewed the preliminary title report, you must resolve any identified issues before finalizing the title insurance policy. It’s advisable to consult with a real estate attorney or a title insurance agent to analyze the report and help you take the necessary steps to clean the title.

Some common title issues may include unpaid taxes, unsatisfied judgments or liens, encroachments on the property, shared driveways or common areas, and improper conveyance. It’s critical to address and resolve these issues promptly to avoid future disputes and protect your investment in the property.

Keep in mind that it’s not always possible to resolve every title issue before closing. For instance, if an issue arises from an undisclosed heir, it may take time to locate them and settle their claim. In such cases, it’s essential to have a title insurance policy that covers any unresolved title issues.

Choose the Right Type of Title Insurance Policy

There are two main types of title insurance policies: Owner’s policies and Lender’s policies. An Owner’s policy protects the buyer against defects or encumbrances in the title that were not disclosed in the title search. On the other side, a Lender’s policy safeguards the lender’s interest in the property by insuring against title defects and encumbrances.

When finalizing your title insurance policy, ensure that you choose the appropriate type of policy to protect your interests. Most mortgage lenders require borrowers to purchase a Lender’s policy, whereas an Owner’s policy is optional, but highly recommended. You may want to consider getting an Owner’s policy to protect your investment, even if it’s not mandatory.

Negotiate Your Title Insurance Premium

Before finalizing your title insurance policy, it’s crucial to shop around and compare prices from different title insurance companies. Rates can vary from one company to another, so it’s essential to compare policies and premiums to find the best coverage for your specific needs.

Some factors that may affect your title insurance premiums include the property’s location, purchase price, loan amount, and the timeframe between prior title transactions. Don’t hesitate to ask for discounts or negotiate the premiums, as some companies may offer reduced rates for first-time buyers, veterans, and other situations.

Close the Title Insurance Transaction

Once you have reviewed the preliminary title report, resolved any title issues, chosen the right type of title insurance policy, and negotiated your premium, you are ready to close the title insurance transaction. The closing process typically occurs at a title insurance company or attorney’s office.

You’ll need to bring identification, certified funds for closing costs and escrow deposits, and any other required documentation to the closing. After signing the necessary paperwork and paying the agreed-upon premium, you’ll receive a final policy that insures your ownership interest in the property.

By taking these steps to finalize your title insurance policy, you can protect your investment and ensure a smoother real estate transaction.

Reviewing Your Title Policy

A title policy is an essential document that provides you with a legal claim to the ownership of your property. It protects you against any issues or disputes that may arise concerning the property’s title. Reviewing your title policy is a crucial step to ensure you are covered in case of any future complications. This section will guide you through the process of reviewing your title policy and identifying areas that require attention.

Understand the Coverage Provided by Your Policy

Before reviewing your title policy, it is essential to understand the coverage it provides. Generally, a title policy protects you against unforeseen defects in the property title, such as liens, encumbrances, or easements that may not have been identified during the title search before closing. Understanding the extent of your coverage will help you review the policy more effectively and identify any potential gaps or necessary amendments.

Review the Schedule of Exclusions and Exceptions

The schedule of exclusions and exceptions is a vital section in your title policy that outlines various events, items, or conditions that are specifically not covered by the policy. It is critical to review this section to ensure that your policy provides comprehensive protection against potential defects. If you identify any exclusions or exceptions that you believe should be covered, it is essential to address them with your title insurance company promptly.

Check for Errors and Inaccuracies

As with any legal document, it is necessary to review your title policy for errors, inaccuracies, or missing information. Common errors may include incorrect property descriptions, misspelled names, or incorrect policy amounts. Identifying and addressing these issues is essential to ensure your policy remains valid and holds up in case of a dispute.

Maintaining Your Policy

After you have carefully reviewed your title policy, it is equally important to maintain it and ensure continued protection for your property. This section will outline the essential steps to help you maintain your policy effectively.

Keep Your Policy in a Safe Place

Your title policy is a crucial legal document that should be kept securely along with your other important documents, such as your mortgage, property deed, and other insurance policies. It is advised to store your policy in a fireproof safe, a safety deposit box in a bank, or any other secure location where it can be easily accessed when needed.

Stay Informed About Changes in Property Law

Staying informed about changes in property law and title insurance regulations will help you maintain your policy and ensure it continues to provide comprehensive protection. Subscribe to relevant newsletters, monitor local news sources, and engage in online forums to stay up-to-date with any changes that may affect your policy.

Communicate Changes in Your Property Ownership

It is essential to inform your title insurance company of any modifications to your property ownership or use, such as a refinancing, sale, or inheritance. Updating your title policy accordingly will ensure that it remains valid and continues to provide you with the necessary protection.

Updating Your Policy

There may be instances when it becomes necessary to update your title policy to account for changes in your property or its ownership. It is crucial to consult with your title insurance company to discuss any updates that may be required.

Amendments to Property Boundaries and Descriptions

If any changes are made to your property’s boundaries, descriptions, or use, it is essential to update your title policy accordingly. This may include amending property descriptions or adding new legal descriptions if your property has been subdivided or expanded.

Adding or Removing Policyholders

In case there are changes in property ownership, such as a sale, inheritance, or divorce, it is crucial to update the policyholders listed on your title policy. Failing to do so may render the policy invalid and leave you vulnerable to potential title defects.

Adjusting Your Policy Coverage

In some instances, you may need to adjust your policy coverage to ensure adequate protection against potential defects. For instance, you might require additional coverage to protect against new liens, encumbrances, or easements that have been identified since the policy was initially issued. Consulting with your title insurance company will help you identify any necessary adjustments to your policy coverage.

In conclusion, reviewing, maintaining, and updating your title policy are crucial steps in ensuring continued protection for your property. By understanding the coverage, addressing potential gaps or inaccuracies, and updating the policy as needed, you can enjoy peace of mind knowing that your property’s title is secure.

Title Insurance Policies FAQs

1. What is the purpose of a title insurance policy?

A title insurance policy protects homebuyers and mortgage lenders from potential losses arising from defects in legal ownership of a property or real estate. The policy aids in resolving any ownership disputes and defending against possible legal claims.

2. Are there different types of title insurance policies?

Yes, there are two primary types of title insurance: (a) Lender’s Policy, which protects the mortgage lender against covered title issues, and (b) Owner’s Policy, covering the homebuyer against ownership disputes and specific defects in the title.

3. Who pays for the title insurance policy?

The party responsible for paying for title insurance varies depending on the location and on the specific terms of a real estate transaction. Generally, either the buyer or the seller, or both, can pay for the policy, as agreed upon during the negotiations.

4. When is a title insurance policy issued?

A title insurance policy is usually issued upon the closing of a property transaction. The insurer conducts a thorough title search to identify possible defects in the title, then issues the policy based on its underwriting guidelines.

5. Can an existing title insurance policy be transferred to a new owner?

An existing owner’s title insurance policy cannot be transferred directly to a new owner. When the property changes hands, the new owner must purchase a separate owner’s policy to protect their interests in the real estate.

6. How long does a title insurance policy provide coverage for?

A lender’s title insurance policy typically lasts for the duration of the mortgage loan. In contrast, an owner’s policy offers coverage for as long as the homebuyer or their heirs have an interest in the property, providing long-term protection for the property owner.

About the Author

As a native Washingtonian, Carlos Reyes’ journey in the real estate industry began more than 15 years ago when he started an online real estate company. Since then, he’s helped more than 700 individuals and families as a real estate broker achieve their real estate goals across Virginia, Maryland and Washington, DC.

Carlos now helps real estate agents grow their business by teaching business fundamentals, execution, and leadership.

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