April 28, 2023


In this article, you will learn about the role and importance of title insurance in real estate transactions, the different types of policies, and common issues that lead to title insurance disputes. The article will also provide insights on how to prevent and resolve such disputes, including legal aspects of interpretation and regulation, the claim process, and the roles played by various professionals.

Additionally, the article will discuss various dispute resolution methods and judicial remedies available to handle title insurance disputes, such as negotiation, mediation, arbitration, litigation, and appeals.

Introduction to Title Insurance Disputes

Title insurance is a type of indemnity insurance policy that protects a property owner from financial loss due to defects in the title of the property. It is designed to ensure that the property owner has clear and marketable title to the property, free from any encumbrances, liens, or other issues that could affect the property’s value or transferability. Despite the crucial role that title insurance plays in safeguarding a property investment, disputes can arise between the insured and the title insurance company over issues related to the coverage, interpretation of policy terms, or denial of claims.

Causes of Title Insurance Disputes

Several factors may cause disputes involving title insurance coverage. Some of the key reasons include:

Errors or Omissions in the Title Search

Before issuing a title insurance policy, the title company performs a thorough search and review of property records to identify any potential defects or issues with the property’s title. However, errors, omissions, or inaccuracies may occur during the title search process, leading to disputes between the insurer and the insured. Examples of such errors can include missed liens, unrecorded easements, and indexing mistakes.

Policy Exclusions and Exceptions

Title insurance policies contain a list of standard exclusions and exceptions that limit the scope of coverage provided by the policy. For example, they typically exclude defects or encumbrances that are known by the insured but not disclosed to the insurer, or those that arise from government regulations such as zoning laws. Disagreements may arise when the policyholder believes that the insurer should cover a specific issue, while the insurer views the issue as an exclusion or exception.

Insufficient Coverage Amount

The amount of coverage provided by a title insurance policy is typically determined by the property’s purchase price. However, the value of the property may substantially increase over time, and the policy’s coverage may not be sufficient to protect the property owner from a financial loss in the event of a title defect. This can lead to disputes over whether the insurer should provide coverage beyond the policy’s limits.

Denial of Claims

Title insurance companies may deny a claim submitted by the insured for various reasons. For instance, the insurer might argue that the policy does not cover the specific defect or that the insured failed to comply with the policy’s terms and conditions. Such denials can lead to disputes between the insured and the insurer, often requiring legal action to resolve the disagreement.

Resolving Title Insurance Disputes

There are several methods available to resolve disputes between the insured and the title insurance company. These include:


In many cases, the property owner and the title insurance company can negotiate a settlement without the need for litigation. This typically involves the parties engaging in discussions to identify potential compromises and mutually agreeable solutions.


Mediation is a voluntary, non-binding dispute resolution process that involves a neutral third party (the mediator) who helps the disputing parties reach a mutually acceptable resolution. Mediation can be an effective method for resolving title insurance disputes, as it allows the parties to discuss their concerns and explore potential solutions without the expense and time-consuming nature of litigation.


Arbitration is a type of alternative dispute resolution in which disputing parties agree to submit their conflict to a neutral third-party arbitrator, whose decision is typically final and binding. Arbitration can be an ideal option for resolving title insurance disputes, as it tends to be less costly and time-consuming than litigation.


If the disputing parties cannot reach a satisfactory resolution through negotiation, mediation, or arbitration, they may choose to pursue litigation. Litigation involves taking the dispute to court, where a judge or jury will make a final decision on the case. While litigation can help resolve disputes, it can also be a costly and time-consuming process.

Overall, title insurance disputes can arise from a variety of causes, posing significant financial risks to property owners. Effective dispute resolution strategies, including negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and litigation, can help both the insured and the title insurance company reach a fair and equitable resolution.

Definition of Title Insurance

Title insurance is a specialized form of insurance that protects property owners and lenders against financial losses due to defects in a property’s title or ownership history. A title is a legal document that demonstrates the right of an individual or entity to own and possess a specific piece of real estate. The purpose of title insurance is to ensure that the transfer of property ownership is seamless, secure, and legally valid. It helps in eliminating any risks or potential claims that may arise from prior issues, such as liens, forgeries, undisclosed heirs, etc.

Title insurance involves a comprehensive title search and examination process undertaken by a title agent or attorney. The procedure reviews and analyzes all available public records related to the property, including deeds, mortgage documents, court judgments, tax records, etc.

It seeks to identify and resolve any errors, inconsistencies, or irregularities before a property transfer occurs. Upon satisfactory completion of this process, a title insurance policy is issued, providing coverage against any undiscovered issues or claims that might challenge the property’s ownership or create legal disputes.

Role and Importance of Title Insurance

Title insurance plays a crucial role in real estate transactions, safeguarding the interests of both buyers and lenders. Its significance can be summarized in the following points:

  1. Protection against financial loss: Title insurance provides the policyholder with financial protection against any losses resulting from title defects or undiscovered claims on the property. This includes legal fees, compensation for damages, and, in some cases, the entire value of the property.
  2. Risk elimination: The comprehensive title search and examination process helps to eliminate potential risks and complications related to the property ownership transfer. It allows buyers to make informed decisions and proceed with confidence in their investment.
  3. Legal defense: If any claims or disputes concerning the property’s title arise, the title insurance company offers legal defense on behalf of the insured party. They may negotiate with claimants, settle or litigate the matter, and bear the associated costs, as per the terms of the policy.
  4. Lender requirement: Lenders generally require a borrower to purchase a title insurance policy as a condition of providing a mortgage loan. This protects the lender’s interest in the property in case of any title-related issues.
  5. Peace of mind: Title insurance offers the assurance and peace of mind to property owners and lenders that their investment is secure and legally protected. It serves as a guarantee that their rights will be defended if any title-related claims or issues emerge.

Types of Title Insurance Policies

There are two main types of title insurance policies: Owner’s Policy and Lender’s Policy.

Owner’s Policy

The owner’s title insurance policy is designed to protect the property buyer’s interests and financial investment. It offers coverage for the full purchase price of the property, ensuring compensation for any monetary losses that may arise due to title defects or undiscovered claims. The owner’s policy remains effective for as long as the owner or their heirs have an interest in the property.

Some common issues covered by an owner’s policy include:
– Fraud or forgery in the property’s title or ownership history
– Incorrect or incomplete recording of documents
– Undisclosed or missing heirs
– Mistakes in previous title examinations
– Unknown liens or encumbrances on the property

Lender’s Policy

A lender’s title insurance policy safeguards the financial interests of the mortgage lender in case of any title defects or claims on the property. It usually covers the amount of the outstanding loan balance and decreases as the loan is paid off over time. A lender’s policy expires when the mortgage is fully repaid.

A lender’s policy typically covers issues arising from the same title defects and undiscovered claims as an owner’s policy. However, its primary purpose is to protect the lender’s collateral – the property – in case of any unforeseen risks or complications that may affect the borrower’s ability to repay the loan.

In summary, title insurance is a crucial component of real estate transactions, providing protection to both property owners and lenders against financial losses resulting from title-related issues. By offering comprehensive title search and examination, legal defense, and financial coverage, title insurance ensures a secure and legally valid transfer of property ownership.

1. Boundary and Survey Disputes

Boundary and survey disputes often arise when there are discrepancies between the legal description of the property in the title documents and the actual physical boundaries of the property. This may occur due to errors in past property surveys or deeds, missing or misplaced monuments or markers, or encroachments by neighboring properties. In some cases, the title insurance policy may not cover these disputes, leaving the property owner to resolve the issue at their own expense.

To prevent boundary or survey disputes, property owners should obtain and review an up-to-date survey of the property and make sure it accurately reflects the legal description in the title documents. Additionally, purchasing an owner’s title insurance policy with extended coverage can provide protection against these types of disputes.

2. Undisclosed Liens and Claimants

Title insurance disputes can also arise from undisclosed liens, mortgages, or other claims against the property. These claims may not have been discovered during the title search process or may have arisen after the policy was issued. Examples of undisclosed liens and claimants include hidden mortgages, unpaid taxes, or unpaid homeowners association dues.

To minimize the risk of discovering an undisclosed lien, property owners should carefully review the title search and commitment before purchasing the property to ensure all liens and claims have been identified and addressed. Additionally, maintaining a meticulous record of all property related transactions and payments can help resolve disputes should they arise.

3. Errors in Public Records

Errors in public records, such as incorrect or missing deeds, can lead to title insurance disputes. These errors can create confusion regarding the property’s legal ownership, resulting in disputes between parties who both believe they have a legitimate claim to the property. Title insurance provides protection against these potential errors by compensating the property owner for any losses they may suffer due to the error.

To protect against errors in public records, property owners should make sure the title search is thorough and accurate. They should review all recorded documents related to the property, including deeds, mortgages, liens, and all other recorded property-related documents. This can help ensure that any issues in public records are caught and resolved before they lead to a dispute.

4. Fraud and Forgery

Another common issue leading to title insurance disputes involves fraud and forgery. For example, someone may forge a property owner’s signature on a deed, mortgage, or other legal documents, leading to disputes over the property’s ownership or the validity of the transaction. Title insurance policies generally provide coverage for losses resulting from fraud and forgery, protecting the property owner from potential losses.

To mitigate the risk of fraud and forgery, property owners should carefully review and verify the authenticity of all documents related to the property before signing or accepting them. If any suspicious activity or discrepancies are discovered, property owners should report them to the title insurance company and seek legal counsel.

5. Easements and Encroachments

Easements and encroachments involve the rights of others to use or access a portion of the property. These disputes may arise when a neighbor claims rights to use a portion of the property or when a property owner discovers an encroachment on their land (e.g., a fence, building, or driveway) that was not previously disclosed. Title insurance policies may or may not cover these types of disputes, depending on the specific terms and conditions of the policy.

To avoid easement and encroachment disputes, property owners should review the property’s legal description and survey to ensure all easements and encroachments are properly disclosed and addressed. Additionally, property owners may consider purchasing a title insurance policy with extended coverage that includes protection against these types of disputes.

Errors in Public Records

Errors in public records can have a significant impact on the ownership and marketability of real estate. These errors can be a result of simple human mistakes or the accidental omission of critical information. They could include errors in recording or indexing legal documents, misreading documents, or misreporting facts like names, legal descriptions of the property, or tax identifications.

Such errors can challenge the legal ownership of a property, cause issues when obtaining financing, or create obstacles when selling the property. Therefore, it is essential to verify the accuracy of public records and correct any errors found promptly.

Consequences of Errors in Public Records

  1. Legal disputes: Errors in public records can lead to legal disputes over property ownership and can result in costly litigation.
  2. Delay in transfer of ownership: Inaccurate public records can slow down the process of transferring a property’s ownership from one party to another.
  3. Issues with financing: Errors in public records may create problems when seeking financing for a property purchase or refinance. Lenders often require clear title before approving a loan.
  4. Reduced property value: Unresolved errors in public records can negatively impact the market value of a property, which in turn affects the amount a buyer is willing to pay.

Undiscovered Liens

A lien is a legal claim on a property as security for the payment of a debt or obligation. Liens can be voluntary or involuntary and can be categorized into various types, such as mechanic’s liens, judgment liens, or tax liens.

Undiscovered liens can pose significant issues for property owners or buyers, as they may not be aware of the lien and its potential impact on the property’s title. When a lien is discovered, it can lead to costly delays and legal disputes in resolving the debt or obligation secured by the lien.

Consequences of Undiscovered Liens

  1. Legal disputes: Unresolved liens can lead to legal disputes between the property owner and the lienholder, who may require the debt to be settled before transferring the property’s title.
  2. Foreclosure: Failure to resolve a lien could result in the foreclosure and sale of the property to satisfy the debt.
  3. Diminished property value: A property with an undiscovered lien may be worth less than its market value, as potential buyers may require the lien to be addressed before proceeding with a purchase.
  4. Difficulty in obtaining financing: Lenders may be hesitant to provide financing for a property with an unresolved lien, as it may affect the collateral’s value.

Illegal Deeds

Illegal deeds can occur when a deed is executed and recorded improperly, which can invalidate the transfer of property ownership. Examples of illegal deeds include forged signatures, deeds executed by minors or mentally incapacitated individuals, and the use of false or incorrect names for grantors or grantees.

These issues can create uncertainty regarding the property’s true ownership and create potential legal disputes between the parties involved.

Consequences of Illegal Deeds

  1. Legal disputes: Illegal deeds can result in legal disputes over property ownership and title, potentially leading to expensive litigation.
  2. Loss of ownership: If an illegal deed is deemed invalid by a court, the property owner may lose ownership, leaving them without any claim to the property.
  3. Financial loss: Those who invest in a property or make improvements based on an illegal deed may suffer financial loss if the property’s ownership is challenged or invalidated.
  4. Difficulty in obtaining financing: Illegal deeds can create problems when seeking financing for a property purchase or refinance, as lenders may require a clear title before approving a loan.

Missing Heirs

Missing heirs can create significant issues for property owners or buyers when they cannot be located or are unaware of their inherited property rights. This situation could result in claims against the property and disputes over ownership, impacting the property’s title and marketability.

Consequences of Missing Heirs

  1. Legal disputes: Missing heirs can lead to legal disputes over the property’s ownership and require the involvement of the courts to determine rightful ownership.
  2. Delay in transfer of ownership: The process of transferring a property’s ownership may be delayed if missing heirs must be located and notified of their inherited rights.
  3. Reduced property value: The uncertainty surrounding a missing heir’s claim can negatively impact the property’s market value and make it difficult to sell.
  4. Difficulty in obtaining financing: Lenders may be hesitant to provide financing for a property with a potential claim by a missing heir, as it may affect the collateral’s value.

Boundary and Survey Disputes

Boundary and survey disputes can arise when there are discrepancies between the property’s legal description and the actual physical boundaries or when adjacent property owners have conflicting claims regarding their respective boundaries. These disagreements could lead to legal disputes, costly delays, and reduced property value.

Consequences of Boundary and Survey Disputes

  1. Legal disputes: Disagreements over property boundaries can lead to legal disputes and the potential need for court intervention to determine the rightful boundary.
  2. Costs of resolution: Owners may incur significant costs to resolve boundary disputes, including surveying expenses, legal fees, and potential damages awarded to the opposing party.
  3. Reduced property value: A property with unresolved boundary disputes could be worth less than its market value due to the uncertainty associated with the disputed land.
  4. Difficulty in obtaining financing: Lenders may be hesitant to provide financing for a property with an unresolved boundary dispute, as it may affect the collateral’s value.

Fraud and Forgery

Fraud and forgery can occur in various ways in real estate transactions, such as forged signatures on documents, falsification of records, or unauthorized persons acting on behalf of a property owner. Fraudulent activities can jeopardize the property’s title, create legal disputes, and result in financial loss for the parties involved.

Consequences of Fraud and Forgery

  1. Legal disputes: Fraudulent activities can lead to legal disputes over property ownership, requiring court involvement to determine rightful ownership and address the fraudulent actions.
  2. Financial loss: Victims of fraud and forgery may suffer financial loss due to the expenses associated with resolving the issues, including legal fees, court costs, and potential damages awarded to the opposing party.
  3. Loss of ownership: If a forged or fraudulent document impacts the property’s title, the property owner may lose ownership, potentially leaving them without any claim to the property.
  4. Difficulty in obtaining financing: Fraud and forgery can hinder the ability to obtain financing for a property purchase or refinance, as lenders may require a clear title before approving a loan.

Easements and Encroachments

Easements and encroachments involve the use of one property owner’s land by another party. Easements may be granted by the property owner, while encroachments occur when a neighbor’s structure, fence, or other features extend onto the neighboring property without permission. Disputes over easements and encroachments can negatively impact the property’s value, ownership rights, and marketability.

Consequences of Easements and Encroachments

  1. Legal disputes: Conflicts over easements and encroachments can lead to legal disputes and potential court involvement to address the use of the property and the need for a resolution.

  2. Costs of resolution: Resolving easement and encroachment disputes may result in significant costs, such as legal fees, court costs, and potential damages awarded.

  3. Reduced property value: Unresolved easement and encroachment disputes can negatively impact the market value of a property, making it difficult to sell or refinance.

  4. Difficulty in obtaining financing: Lenders may be hesitant to provide financing for a property with unresolved easement or encroachment disputes, as it may affect the collateral’s value.

Understanding Title Insurance

Title insurance is a type of indemnity insurance that protects property owners and lenders from potential losses tied to defects in a property’s title – the legal document confirming a person’s right to own, possess, or control the property. Common title defects include unpaid liens, improper or incorrect legal descriptions, encroachments, or various other issues that could impede the transfer of a clear title to a new owner.

Title insurance primarily comes in two forms: owner’s title insurance and lender’s title insurance. Owner’s title insurance, as the name suggests, protects the property owner from any potential claims arising from defects in title. Lender’s title insurance, on the other hand, protects the mortgage lender from any financial losses resulting from disputes or defects in a property’s title. Both types of title insurance are typically purchased at the time of closing when a property owner acquires a mortgage or refinances their property.

How to Prevent Title Insurance Disputes

To prevent title insurance disputes, property buyers should take proactive steps at various stages of the real estate purchase process. Some of the steps include:

  1. Choose a reputable title insurance provider: Research and select a reliable and reputable title insurance company with a proven track record of handling title disputes.
  2. Obtain a preliminary title report: A preliminary title report provides essential data about a property’s history, including any liens, easements, and other encumbrances that may impact the property’s title. Reviewing the preliminary title report can help identify and address issues before they turn into disputes later.
  3. Conduct a thorough title search: A title search involves reviewing public records related to a property to ensure a clear chain of title. Engaging an experienced title search company or attorney can help uncover hard-to-find title defects and avoid potential disputes.
  4. Request endorsements: Depending on the property’s specific circumstances, buyers may need endorsements – additional coverage on top of their standard title insurance policy. Requesting endorsements to cover specific risks can help prevent disputes arising from uncovered title defects.
  5. Review the title commitment: A title commitment is a document outlining the terms and conditions under which a title insurer agrees to provide coverage. Reviewing title commitment carefully can help potential buyers identify any outstanding issues or title exceptions that may cause future disputes.

Resolving Title Insurance Disputes

If a title dispute does arise, it is essential for property owners to act quickly and take appropriate steps to resolve them. Here are some strategies to help resolve title insurance disputes:

  1. Notify the title insurance company: As soon as a title issue arises, inform the title insurance provider in writing. Timely reporting is crucial, as failure to do so may jeopardize insurance coverage.
  2. Review the policy and coverage: Revisit the title insurance policy to determine the extent of the coverage and applicable exclusions. Understanding the coverage can help property owners better evaluate their options and legal rights.
  3. Gather evidence and documentation: Collect all relevant documents and evidence supporting the title claim. This may include the property deed, title search and abstract, title insurance policy, and any communications with the title insurer or third parties.
  4. Engage a real estate attorney: Seek the advice of an experienced real estate attorney. Consult with the attorney to discuss potential legal strategies and avenues for dispute resolution, such as negotiation, mediation, or litigation.
  5. Pursue dispute resolution options: Consider all available dispute resolution mechanisms based on factors like costs, time, and potential outcomes. For complex disputes, alternative dispute resolution methods like mediation and arbitration may prove to be more efficient and cost-effective than litigation.

In conclusion, prevention and resolution of title insurance disputes are crucial factors in ensuring the long-term security and enjoyment of a property. By taking proactive measures and engaging experienced professionals, property owners can significantly reduce the likelihood of title disputes and mitigate any potential financial and legal risks.

Conducting a Thorough Title Search

A thorough title search is a crucial first step in the process of purchasing a property. It helps ensure that the seller has the legal right to transfer the property and that the buyer will not face any unexpected issues or liabilities affecting the title to the property.

What is a Title Search?

A title search is an examination of public records to determine the legal ownership history of a property, along with any liens, encumbrances or other issues that may affect the title. Essentially, it is the process of investigating and verifying the legal status of a property before purchasing it.

Steps to Conduct a Title Search

  1. Identify the property: Before conducting a title search, you must first identify the property that you are interested in purchasing. This includes obtaining the property’s legal description and address.
  2. Access public records: You can begin the title search by accessing the public records in the county or city where the property is located. These records are usually available at the local county courthouse or online.
  3. Review the title chain: A title search should ideally go back to the original owner of the property. By examining the chain of title, you can determine if the property has been transferred legally and if there are any gaps in the ownership history.
  4. Check for liens and encumbrances: A thorough title search will also reveal any liens or encumbrances on the property, such as outstanding taxes, unpaid bills or mortgages. As a buyer, you must ensure that these liens are resolved before closing the deal to avoid any issues in the future.
  5. Review recorded documents: Documents such as deeds, mortgages, easements, and restrictive covenants are recorded and maintained in the public records. Reviewing these documents can help you understand the restrictions and rights that affect the property.
  6. Obtain a preliminary title report: A title company or attorney can provide you with a preliminary title report, which outlines the ownership history, liens, encumbrances, and other issues related to the property.

Identifying and Resolving Potential Issues Before Closing

During the title search process, you may come across potential issues that could affect your ownership rights and the transfer of the property. It is essential to identify these problems and resolve them before closing the deal to ensure a smooth transaction.

Common Title Issues

  1. Liens: Liens, such as tax liens, mechanic’s liens, or judgment liens, must be paid off before the property can be transferred.
  2. Easements: Easements grant certain rights to other parties to use a portion of the property. Make sure to review any easements to ensure they will not adversely affect your intended use of the property.
  3. Boundary disputes: Confirm the property’s boundaries to avoid potential disputes with neighbors regarding encroachments or shared land.
  4. Errors in public records: Mistakes in public records, such as incorrect information on deeds or missing documents, can affect the clear title to the property. These errors need to be corrected before closing.

Resolving Title Issues

  1. Obtain a title insurance policy: Title insurance provides protection against financial loss if any issues arise regarding the property’s title after closing the deal. It can cover the cost of legal expenses and help resolve any title problems.
  2. Work with a title company or attorney: Real estate professionals with experience in title issues can provide you with expert advice and assistance in resolving issues before closing.
  3. Negotiate with the seller: In some cases, you can negotiate with the seller to have them clear up any existing issues or request a price reduction to cover the cost of resolving the problem.

Obtaining Appropriate Endorsements and Coverage

In addition to resolving title issues before closing, it’s important to ensure you have appropriate endorsements and coverage for your property.

Title Insurance Endorsements

Title insurance endorsements are additional coverages that can be added to your standard title insurance policy to protect against specific risks not covered by the basic policy. Some common endorsements include:

  1. Survey endorsement: This endorsement provides coverage for any discrepancies in the property’s boundaries discovered after closing.
  2. Access endorsements: These endorsements ensure you have legal access to the property, such as through an easement or shared driveway.
  3. Zoning endorsements: This coverage protects against losses due to zoning violations or changes that could affect your property’s use or value.

Obtaining the Right Coverage

  1. Assess your property’s risks: Review the results of your title search and identify any potential risks or issues that could affect your property in the future.
  2. Consult with a title insurance professional: Discuss your findings and concerns with a title insurance expert, who can recommend the appropriate endorsements and coverages for your specific situation.
  3. Review your title insurance policy: Before closing, carefully review your title insurance policy to ensure it contains the necessary endorsements and coverages to protect your investment.

In conclusion, conducting a thorough title search and obtaining appropriate endorsements and coverage are essential steps in securing your property’s title and avoiding potential issues in the future. By taking these precautions, you can protect your investment and ensure a smooth and successful real estate transaction.

The Basics of Title Insurance Disputes

A title insurance policy is a crucial element of property transactions in the United States. Title insurance covers and protects the policyholder from any loss or damage resulting from defects in the title to the insured property. Defects can include liens, encumbrances, easements, or other encroachments, which may affect the property owner’s rights or interests.

Title insurance disputes can arise for various reasons, such as mistakes or omissions by the title insurance company, an incorrect legal description of the property, or misinterpretations of the defects covered by the policy. In these situations, it is essential to understand the legal aspects of title insurance disputes to protect your rights and interests as a property owner.

The Role of the Title Insurance Company

A title insurance company plays a crucial role in property transactions by examining the public records and history of the property to identify any possible defects in the title. After conducting a title search, the title insurance company issues a title insurance policy that provides coverage for the owner’s and lender’s interests in the real estate transaction.

The title insurance company is responsible for providing accurate and thorough information about the property title and addressing any issues or concerns that may arise during the title examination process. In case of any defects in the title or issues that later surface, the title insurance company is responsible for defending the policyholder’s interests and covering any resulting loss, up to the policy limits.

Common Reasons for Title Insurance Disputes

There are several reasons why title insurance disputes may arise. Some common causes include the following:

  1. Errors or omissions by the title insurance company during the title search or examination process: In some cases, the title insurance company may overlook or miss an issue with the title that should have been identified and resolved during the initial examination.
  2. Incorrect legal descriptions: If the title insurance policy contains an inaccurate or incomplete description of the property, disputes may arise regarding the extent of coverage provided for the property and any defects associated with it.
  3. Unauthorized practice of law: There have been instances where title insurance companies have been accused of practicing law without a license, particularly when the company offers settlement services or legal advice to the parties involved in a real estate transaction.
  4. Defective notice or recording: Title insurance disputes may arise if there are issues with the recordation of the policy, such as defects in the notice given to the public or the manner in which the document was recorded with the appropriate public office.
  5. Disputes over coverage: Parties may disagree on whether certain defects in the title are covered under the terms of the policy, leading to disputes over the scope and extent of coverage provided by the title insurance policy.

Legal Remedies in Title Insurance Disputes

When a title insurance dispute arises, there are several legal remedies available to the parties involved. These remedies may include:

  1. Mediation: One of the most common methods of resolving title insurance disputes is mediation, where both parties engage in a confidential and voluntary process in which a neutral third-party mediator assists in negotiating a mutually acceptable settlement.
  2. Arbitration: Another approach to settling title insurance disputes is arbitration, where an impartial arbitrator hears and decides the dispute. The decision may be binding or non-binding, depending on the agreement between the parties.
  3. Litigation: If the parties are unable to reach a resolution through mediation or arbitration, they may proceed with litigation in a court of law. Litigation is often a time-consuming and expensive process, but it may be necessary to protect the rights and interests of the policyholder.
  4. Rescission: In some cases, if it is determined that the title insurance policy was issued based on fraud or misrepresentation, either party may seek rescission of the policy, which would essentially void the contract and restore the parties to their pre-contractual status.

Regardless of the reason for the title insurance dispute, it is essential to seek legal assistance from an attorney experienced in handling these types of disputes. A knowledgeable lawyer can help you understand your rights, evaluate your situation, and determine the best course of action to protect your interests in a title insurance dispute.

Interpretation of Title Insurance Policy Provisions

Title insurance is a type of indemnity insurance that aims to protect the buyer of real estate property from financial loss due to title defects. These defects may include errors or omissions in title records, unpaid liens, ownership disputes, fraud, misrepresentation, and other title issues. The provisions of a title insurance policy outline the specific terms, conditions, exclusions, and limitations of coverage.

Title insurance is generally provided through either a standard policy or an extended coverage policy. A standard policy insures the insured party against defects in title and losses arising from some specified risks, such as unrecorded easements, undisclosed encroachments, and fraud in the execution of title documents. An extended coverage policy enhances the standard policy by adding protection against additional risks, such as zoning and land-use regulation violations, mineral and surface rights disputes, and unrecorded building or construction liens.

Understanding the different provisions of a title insurance policy is crucial for both the buyer and the seller of a property. Some of the most common provisions include:

  1. Covered risks: This provision lists the specific title defects and risks that are covered under the policy. It is essential for the insured party to review this section to understand the extent of the policy’s coverage.
  2. Exclusions: This section specifies the risks and defects that are not covered under the policy. Typical exclusions include bankruptcy proceedings, position disputes, marital and homestead rights, and issues that arise from the insured party’s negligence or wrongdoing.
  3. Conditions and stipulations: These provisions outline the terms and conditions under which the policy will cover losses. This may include requirements for notice of claim, defense provisions, arbitration clauses, and payment of policy limits.
  4. Schedule A: The schedule A of the policy provides the insured party’s name, the amount of insurance coverage, the property’s description, and any additional endorsements that may be included in the policy.
  5. Schedule B: Schedule B lists the specific exceptions to the policy’s coverage, such as recorded easements, restrictive covenants, or reservations of mineral rights.

Statutory and Regulatory Framework

Title insurance is governed by a combination of state and federal laws and regulations. These laws and regulations aim to ensure the proper functioning of the title insurance industry and protect the interests of consumers.

In the United States, title insurance is primarily regulated at the state level. Each state has its own title insurance statutes, codes, and regulations that govern the licensing of title insurance companies, agents, and underwriters, as well as the rates and forms of title insurance. The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) also plays a significant role in the regulation of title insurance by establishing model laws, regulations, and guidelines that states can adopt.

Some key federal laws affecting title insurance include the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA), the Truth in Lending Act (TILA), and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. These laws govern the disclosure of title insurance costs, provide consumer protections, and regulate title insurance industry practices.

Filing a Title Insurance Claim: Process and Documentation

When a title issue arises after the purchase of a property, the property owner or lender may need to file a title insurance claim. The process and documentation involved in filing a claim include:

  1. Notify the title insurance company: The insured party must promptly notify the title insurer of the title defect or issue in writing. This notice should include relevant details such as the date of discovery, the nature of the defect, and the potential impact on the property’s title.
  2. Provide supporting documentation: The insured party may need to provide documents that support the claim, such as copies of the title commitment, title policy, and closing documents.
  3. Investigation and assessment: The title insurance company will investigate the claim to determine the validity of the issue and the potential remedies. This may involve hiring a title examiner or attorney to research the title issue and assess the potential financial loss.
  4. Resolution and payment: If the claim is approved, the title insurer will either pay the insured party the amount of loss covered under the policy, pay for the cost of legal defense, or undertake remedial actions to cure the title defect.

Role of Title Insurance Agents, Attorneys, and Underwriters

The title insurance industry involves the cooperation of various professionals, including title insurance agents, attorneys, and underwriters.

  1. Title insurance agents: Title agents play a critical role in the real estate transaction process. They conduct the title search and examination to identify and resolve potential title issues before issuing a title commitment and policy. They also prepare and review closing documents, coordinate with various parties involved in the transaction, and may facilitate the closing process.
  2. Attorneys: Real estate attorneys often work in tandem with title insurance agents or act as title insurance agents themselves. They provide legal support, advice, and representation in real estate transactions, including the review of title documents, the negotiation and drafting of contracts, and the resolution of title defects or disputes.
  3. Underwriters: Title insurance underwriters play a crucial role in assessing the risk associated with a particular property and determining if coverage should be issued. They review the title examination report, identify and evaluate potential title risks, and develop the terms and conditions of the title insurance policy. Underwriters also work closely with other industry professionals to resolve title issues and process claims.

Understanding Title Insurance Disputes

Title insurance provides protection to homebuyers and lenders, ensuring that the property is free from any encumbrances, liens, or other title defects that could cause financial loss. While title insurance is generally reliable, disputes can arise in various situations, such as when a new owner discovers a title defect, a lender denies coverage for a loan, or multiple parties have competing claims to a single property.

In most cases, disputes concerning title insurance coverage are handled through either litigation or alternative dispute resolution (ADR). ADR typically includes mediation or arbitration as a way to resolve conflicts without involving a traditional court trial. ADR can provide a more efficient, cost-effective, and less time-consuming method for resolving title insurance disputes.


Mediation is a form of ADR wherein a neutral third-party mediator helps the disputing parties reach an agreement on how to resolve their differences. The mediator assists in identifying the key issues, facilitating communication, and exploring possible solutions. The ultimate goal is to aid the parties in reaching a mutual agreement voluntarily.

Mediation is often considered a suitable option for resolving title insurance disputes as it is less adversarial, less expensive, and more flexible than litigation. Furthermore, mediation can often lead to a quicker resolution of the conflict, allowing the parties to avoid the time-consuming and costly process associated with traditional litigation.

In many cases, the title insurance policy itself may require that the parties attempt mediation before proceeding to other methods of dispute resolution. This requirement can encourage parties to engage in collaborative problem-solving and negotiate in good faith.


Arbitration is a more formal type of ADR, where an arbitrator or panel of arbitrators hears the case presented by the disputing parties and makes a binding decision. The decision rendered by an arbitrator is enforceable in court and is not subject to appeal, except in limited circumstances.

Arbitration can provide several benefits in resolving title insurance disputes. It is typically a more streamlined process, often resulting in a quicker resolution. Additionally, arbitration ensures confidentiality, which can be appealing to the parties involved in a dispute. The use of experienced arbitrators with specialized knowledge in title insurance issues can also lead to more predictable and fair outcomes.

However, some drawbacks to arbitration in title insurance disputes include the limited appeal rights, potentially higher costs compared to mediation, and inflexibility of the process.

Choosing the Right Method for Resolving Title Insurance Disputes

When deciding between mediation, arbitration, or litigation to resolve a title insurance dispute, the parties should consider factors such as the complexity of the case, the potential costs involved, the desired degree of confidentiality, and the level of control each party wants to maintain over the outcome.

In many instances, mediation may be the preferred option as it is less formal and less expensive than other methods, and it allows the disputing parties to maintain control over the resolution process. However, if the parties desire a more structured and decisive process, arbitration may be more appropriate. On the other hand, if the parties cannot agree on an alternative resolution method, traditional litigation may be the only recourse.

Ultimately, the best method for resolving title insurance disputes will depend on the specific circumstances of the case and the preferences of the parties involved. Regardless of the chosen method, engaging in open communication and seeking legal advice early will help ensure a smoother resolution process.


Negotiation is a process in which two or more parties come together to reach a mutual agreement on a matter. This may involve resolving disputes or conflicts, forging business deals, or concluding commercial transactions, among other situations. Negotiation is a crucial skill for anyone who wants to effectively communicate and manage relationships with others, such as employers, employees, partners, investors, and suppliers.

There are several negotiation styles and strategies, each with its own set of strengths and weaknesses. The most effective negotiators often adapt their style depending on the situation and the people involved. The key to successful negotiation is understanding the needs and goals of each party and finding a solution that satisfies all parties.

Steps in the Negotiation Process

The following steps are common in a negotiation process:

  1. Preparation: This step involves gathering information on the parties involved, their needs, and their expectations. It is essential to be well-prepared to determine your goals, set your limits, and identify your bargaining tools.
  2. Relationship building: The rapport between the negotiating parties can significantly impact the outcome. Establishing trust and openness allows for a more productive and amicable negotiation.
  3. Information exchange: Parties share their goals, interests, and concerns to gain a better understanding of each other’s positions. Honest and open communication is crucial at this stage.
  4. Problem-solving: This phase involves exploring options and generating potential solutions. Parties should brainstorm as many alternatives as possible and assess the merits and drawbacks of each option.
  5. Bargaining: Parties engage in a back-and-forth discussion on their positions, making concessions and compromises to settle on a mutually acceptable agreement.
  6. Agreement: Once both parties have reached a mutually beneficial solution, they should draft the terms and conditions in writing to create a binding contract.
  7. Follow-up: The last stage involves monitoring the execution of the agreement and addressing any issues that may arise during its implementation.


Mediation is a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) where a neutral third party, referred to as the mediator, assists the disputing parties in reaching a mutually acceptable agreement. The mediator does not impose a solution or make decisions on behalf of the parties. Instead, they facilitate communication and guide the parties towards a solution they find agreeable.

Benefits of Mediation

Mediation offers several benefits over traditional litigation, including:

  1. Cost-effective: Mediation is generally less expensive than going to court, as parties can avoid costs related to attorney fees, court fees, and other litigation expenses.
  2. Time-saving: Mediation can resolve disputes much more quickly than a court trial, sometimes within a few hours or days.
  3. Confidentiality: Mediation sessions are private and confidential, allowing parties to discuss sensitive issues without the risk of public exposure.
  4. Flexibility: Mediation offers the parties more control over the process and the outcome, as they can design a customized solution tailored to their specific needs.
  5. Preservation of relationships: Mediation promotes open communication and understanding between parties, making it a valuable tool for resolving disputes between business partners or family members.


Arbitration is another form of alternative dispute resolution used to resolve disputes outside the court system. It involves the appointment of one or more arbitrators who serve as neutral third parties to hear the evidence and arguments presented by both sides and render a binding decision.

Arbitration can be either voluntary, where the parties agree to submit their case for arbitration instead of going to court, or mandatory, where a statute or contract requires the parties to resolve disputes through arbitration.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Arbitration

Advantages of arbitration include:

  1. Cost-effective: Arbitration can be less expensive than litigation due to lower attorney fees, court costs, and other litigation expenses.
  2. Time-efficient: Arbitration typically provides a faster resolution to disputes compared to lengthy court trials.
  3. Flexibility: The arbitration process can be customized to the needs of the parties, allowing for more control over scheduling and procedural rules.
  4. Expertise: The parties can select arbitrators with specific expertise in the subject matter of the dispute, ensuring a well-informed decision.
  5. Confidentiality: Arbitration proceedings are private and confidential, protecting sensitive business information and preserving reputations.

Disadvantages of arbitration include:

  1. Binding decisions: Arbitral awards are usually binding and enforceable, leaving limited avenues for appeal or review.
  2. Costs: While arbitration can be less expensive than litigation, the arbitrator fees and expenses may still be significant.
  3. Limited discovery: The arbitration process may offer fewer opportunities for parties to gather evidence and information from each other.
  4. No precedent: Arbitration decisions do not set legal precedents, limiting their impact on future similar cases.
  5. Perceived impartiality: Some critics argue that mandatory arbitration clauses can favor the more powerful party.

Key Points In Title Insurance Disputes

Title insurance disputes typically arise when there is a disagreement between the title insurance company and the insured party. These disputes can involve various issues such as defects in title, liens, easements, or policy coverage. When a title insurance dispute arises, parties need to understand the available judicial remedies to protect their rights and interests.

Title Insurance Litigation

Litigation is a common way to resolve title insurance disputes. When parties are unable to reach an agreement through negotiation or mediation, they can resort to the court system. There are several steps involved in the litigation process, including filing a lawsuit, discovery, summary judgment, and trial. During the trial, the parties will present their case and provide evidence to the court. If a party is unsatisfied with the outcome of the litigation, they can appeal the decision.

Litigation can be costly and time-consuming, but it can also lead to a decisive resolution of a title insurance dispute. To succeed in litigation, both the insurer and the insured must understand the complexity of their case, gather relevant evidence, and present a persuasive argument to the court.

Declaratory Judgment Action

A declaratory judgment action is a legal remedy where a party seeks a court order to clarify their rights and obligations under a title insurance policy. This procedure often arises when the title insurance company and insured disagree on policy coverage or the existence of a defect in the title. A declaratory judgment action may also be used to determine the priority of competing claims or liens on the property.

During the declaratory judgment action, the parties present evidence and arguments to the court to establish their understanding of the title insurance policy and the facts in dispute. The court then issues a declaratory judgment, which defines the rights and liabilities of the parties under the policy. This judgment can provide the basis for further negotiation or litigation.


An injunction is a judicial order requiring a party to either take specific action or refrain from certain activities. In the context of a title insurance dispute, parties may seek injunctions to prevent the insured from transferring the property or to compel the insured to perform specific acts necessary to perfect the title.

An injunction may be temporary or permanent. A temporary injunction is usually granted during the litigation process to maintain the status quo until a final decision is reached. A permanent injunction, on the other hand, is granted after the court has made a final decision on the merits of the case.

Injunctions can be an effective remedy to protect the interests of the parties in a title insurance dispute. However, obtaining an injunction can be challenging, as the applicant must establish that they have a strong case, that substantial harm will occur if the injunction is not granted, and that the balance of convenience between the parties favors granting the injunction.


In some cases, the appropriate remedy for a title insurance dispute is the award of monetary damages. Damages can be awarded to compensate the insured for financial losses resulting from a defect in the title or a breach of the title insurance policy.

The amount of damages awarded will depend on the facts of the case and the extent of the insured’s loss. For example, the insured may be entitled to the difference in value between the property with a clear title and the property with the encumbrance or defect.

It is important for both the insurer and the insured to understand the potential damages at stake in a title insurance dispute. Assessing the potential damages can help inform the negotiation process and motivate both parties to reach a mutually beneficial resolution.

In conclusion, there are various judicial remedies available for title insurance disputes, including litigation, declaratory judgment actions, injunctions, and damages. The selection of the appropriate remedy will depend on the specific facts of the case and the goals of the parties involved. A thorough understanding of these remedies and their implications is crucial for both the insurer and the insured to protect their interests and achieve the best outcome in a title insurance dispute.

Litigation: Types of Lawsuits

In the realm of real estate, there are various types of lawsuits that may arise due to disputes between parties or infringements upon rights. Some of the most common types of real estate lawsuits include Quiet Title Actions, Declaratory Judgment Actions, and Bad Faith Claims. In this article, we will explore each of these types of lawsuits in detail, explaining their purpose, scope, and the potential outcomes for parties involved.

Quiet Title Actions

A quiet title action is a legal proceeding that aims to resolve disputes over the ownership of a property or piece of land. This type of lawsuit is necessary when there are conflicting claims or interests in the title which may impair the owner’s ability to sell, mortgage, or otherwise transfer the property. By filing a quiet title action, the property owner seeks a court order to “quiet” any disputing claims and confirm the ownership rights of the title holder.

A quiet title action may be necessary in cases where there are ambiguities in the chain of title, such as missing or incorrect information in the public records; or unrecorded interests like adverse possession, easements, or liens. The process typically involves filing a complaint with the court, providing notice to any parties with potential interests in the property, and presenting evidence to support the plaintiff’s claim of ownership.

Once filed, a quiet title action may lead to various outcomes. In some cases, the court may establish the rightful owner and extinguish any competing claims. In other cases, the court may determine that certain interests or claims are valid and should be recorded, effectively altering the chain of title. Ultimately, the goal of a quiet title action is to provide certainty and protection to the property owner, ensuring that no unknown or future claims can cause disruptions in their ownership rights.

Declaratory Judgment Actions

A declaratory judgment action is a type of legal procedure that seeks a judicial determination or declaration of the rights, obligations, or legal relations between parties without requesting specific relief or damages. In the context of real estate, this type of lawsuit is often used to resolve disputes over property boundaries, easements, restrictions, or other ambiguous or contested issues in land use and ownership.

By filing a declaratory judgment action, a party requests the court to clarify or interpret a specific aspect of their legal relationship with other parties, such as the extent of an easement or the validity of a restrictive covenant. This type of action is especially useful when the parties are uncertain about their rights and obligations, or when there is a high risk of future disputes or litigation.

In a declaratory judgment action, the court examines the relevant evidence and legal principles to determine the parties’ rights and responsibilities. The decision issued by the court does not grant damages or enforceable remedies; rather, it serves as an authoritative declaration of the parties’ legal positions, which may then provide a basis for further negotiation, settlement, or legal action if needed.

Bad Faith Claims

In the context of real estate litigation, a bad faith claim refers to a lawsuit that alleges that one party has acted dishonestly, unreasonably, or with an improper motive in their dealings with another party. This type of claim often arises in the context of insurance disputes, such as when an insurer is accused of unfairly denying or delaying coverage for a policyholder’s property loss or damage.

Bad faith claims may also arise in other real estate transactions, such as when a seller misrepresents the condition or legal status of a property, or when a landlord fails to properly maintain or manage rental property in accordance with their legal obligations.

To prevail on a bad faith claim, the plaintiff must typically prove that the defendant acted with knowledge or reckless disregard of their legal duties or obligations, and that this conduct caused harm or loss to the plaintiff. If the plaintiff is successful in proving their bad faith claim, they may be entitled to recover damages, including compensation for their actual losses, as well as potential punitive damages to punish the defendant for their improper conduct.

Overall, the types of lawsuits discussed in this article – quiet title actions, declaratory judgment actions, and bad faith claims – each serve a distinct purpose in the realm of real estate litigation. By understanding the scope and implications of these legal actions, parties involved in real estate disputes can better navigate the complex landscape of property rights and responsibilities, and protect their interests in the face of contentious issues.

Statute of Limitations

The statute of limitations signifies the time frame within which an individual or organization can file a lawsuit after they become aware of the cause of action. It serves as a deadline for filing a lawsuit, and if a person fails to file within the prescribed time, they may lose their right to litigate the claim. This legal concept helps preserve the fairness and integrity of the legal system by ensuring timely resolution of disputes and preventing the loss of evidence, fading memories, or the risk of inconsistent verdicts that may arise due to the passage of time.

Statutes of limitations vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and depend on the nature of the cause of action. Common categories include personal injury, contract disputes, property disputes, criminal cases, and more.

Civil Lawsuits

In civil lawsuits, the statute of limitations generally ranges from 1 to 6 years, depending on the cause of action and the state or country where the lawsuit is filed. For instance, personal injury claims may have a shorter statute of limitations, typically between 1 to 3 years, while breaches of contract may allow for a longer period, typically between 3 to 6 years. It is crucial for parties to be aware of the specific limitation periods applicable to their case, as failure to file within that time frame may lead to dismissal of the suit.

Criminal Cases

Criminal statutes of limitations play a crucial role in determining the time within which the prosecution must commence a case after the occurrence of an alleged crime. Felonies like murder, kidnapping, or treason generally have no statute of limitations, which allows the prosecution to bring charges against the accused at any time. Misdemeanors, on the other hand, have varying statutes of limitations, such as 1 to 5 years, depending on the offense and the jurisdiction.

Monetary Relief: Available Damages and Remedies

In a lawsuit, monetary relief in the form of damages or remedies can be awarded to the prevailing party to compensate for the suffered losses. The three main types of monetary awards are compensatory damages, punitive damages, and nominal damages. Additionally, a court may also grant equitable remedies if monetary compensation is deemed insufficient.

Compensatory Damages

Compensatory damages are the most common form of monetary relief awarded to a plaintiff in a civil lawsuit. These damages are intended to make the injured party “whole” again by compensating them for direct losses and expenses incurred as a result of the defendant’s conduct. Economic damages, such as medical expenses, lost wages, and property damage, can be quantified easily. In contrast, non-economic damages, like pain and suffering, may be subjectively determined by the jury.

Punitive Damages

Punitive damages are awarded in cases where a defendant’s conduct is determined to be particularly egregious, malicious, or reckless. These damages are designed to punish the defendant and deter them and others from engaging in similar conduct in the future. Punitive damages are typically awarded in addition to compensatory damages and may be subject to statutory limits depending on the jurisdiction.

Nominal Damages

Nominal damages are awarded when a plaintiff proves that their rights have been violated but fails to demonstrate a substantial loss or injury. This small monetary award is primarily symbolic, acknowledging that the plaintiff’s rights were infringed, yet no significant harm was suffered.

Appeals and Further Legal Recourse

An appeal is a legal process that allows a party who is dissatisfied with a trial court’s decision to seek review by a higher court. The appellant, or the party filing the appeal, has the burden of showing that the trial court made an error in its ruling that affected the outcome of the case.

Grounds for Appeal

Appeals can be based on various grounds, such as errors in the application or interpretation of the law, procedural errors, or insufficient evidence to justify the ruling. However, not every issue or error will be considered on appeal; the appellant must demonstrate that the error had a material impact on the case’s outcome.

Appellate Process

The appellate process typically involves filing a notice of appeal within a given time frame, submitting written briefs outlining the issues presented for review, and potentially participating in oral arguments before the appellate court. The appellate court then reviews the case and issues its ruling, which may affirm, reverse, or modify the lower court’s decision or remand the case for further proceedings.

Further Legal Recourse

If a party is dissatisfied with the appellate court’s decision, they may seek further legal recourse by petitioning the state’s highest court or the Supreme Court to review the case. However, these higher courts have discretionary authority regarding which cases they choose to accept, and only a small number of such petitions are granted review. Once the highest court issues its decision, the case is generally considered resolved, subject to any further proceedings that may be ordered by the court.

Title Insurance Disputes FAQs

1. What is a title insurance dispute?

A title insurance dispute arises when a policyholder makes a claim and believes the title insurance company has not fulfilled its obligations under the policy. These disputes generally involve discrepancies surrounding property ownership, undisclosed liens, or other title defects affecting the ownership rights.

2. How can title insurance disputes be resolved?

Title insurance disputes can be resolved through negotiation, mediation, arbitration, or litigation. These processes allow both parties to present their arguments, address legal issues, and arrive at a resolution. The choice of resolution method depends on the specific title insurance policy and the parties’ preferences.

3. What factors contribute to title insurance disputes?

Factors that contribute to title insurance disputes may include errors in public records, undisclosed heirs, forgery, incorrect legal descriptions of the property, and fraud. These factors can result in unexpected claims against a property owner, potentially putting ownership or the value of the property at risk.

4. Can title insurance disputes be avoided?

While title insurance disputes cannot be entirely prevented, proactive measures can reduce their likelihood. These measures include conducting thorough title searches, obtaining an owner’s title insurance policy, and seeking legal advice from a qualified attorney to address potential title defects or legal issues on a property.

5. How long do title insurance disputes typically take to resolve?

The duration of a title insurance dispute varies depending on the complexity of the issues, the dispute resolution method, and the parties’ willingness to negotiate. Negotiation or mediation may offer expedited resolution, whereas litigation or arbitration may require more time, possibly extending up to several months or even years.

6. What role do attorneys play in title insurance disputes?

Attorneys play a crucial role in title insurance disputes, providing legal representation and advice to the policyholders. They can help investigate the title issue, gather evidence, present arguments, negotiate settlements, and advocate for the party’s interests in mediation, arbitration, or litigation proceedings.

About the Author

As a native Washingtonian, Carlos Reyes’ journey in the real estate industry began more than 15 years ago when he started an online real estate company. Since then, he’s helped more than 700 individuals and families as a real estate broker achieve their real estate goals across Virginia, Maryland and Washington, DC.

Carlos now helps real estate agents grow their business by teaching business fundamentals, execution, and leadership.

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