May 2, 2023


In this article, readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of title insurance, its purpose, types of policies, and components. The cost of title insurance, along with the common causes of disputes such as incorrect property boundaries, unrecorded easements, liens, and encumbrances, will also be discussed.

The article further delves into the process of filing a title insurance claim, including steps, timelines, and handling delays and denials. Legal remedies for title insurance disputes, such as negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and litigation, are explored along with an overview of appealing a decision.

Finally, the article concludes with a focus on prevention and best practices for maintaining accurate documentation, thorough title searches, and clear communication.

A Guide to Title Insurance

Title insurance is a unique form of insurance policy that protects property owners and mortgage lenders from financial loss due to defects in a property’s title, or legal ownership. It is usually purchased during the property buying process to ensure a smooth and secure transfer of the property title. The following sections provide a comprehensive understanding of the purpose, types, components, and cost of title insurance.

The Purpose of Title Insurance

The primary purpose of title insurance is to protect property buyers, sellers, and lenders from potential financial loss resulting from title defects, encumbrances, or other issues that may impact the ownership or marketability of the property. Common title defects include, but are not limited to, recording errors, undisclosed liens, easements, boundary disputes, fraud, or forgery.

With title insurance, the title company researches the property’s history to identify and remedy any potential title issues before closing the transaction. This is done through a comprehensive title search, which examines public records, legal documents, and other information related to the property. If a claim is made against the property after closing, the title insurance policy can provide legal defense and financial coverage for eligible losses.

Title insurance offers peace of mind to property owners by ensuring that their investment is secure from unexpected claims and legal disputes. It also protects the interests of mortgage lenders, as they require assurance that the property’s title is clear and free to use as collateral.

Types of Title Insurance Policies

There are two primary types of title insurance policies: owner’s policy and lender’s policy.

  1. Owner’s policy: This policy is designed to protect the property buyer from financial loss resulting from title defects or issues that occurred before the property’s purchase. It typically covers the purchase amount of the property and remains valid for as long as the owner or their heirs have a vested interest in the property.

  2. Lender’s policy: This policy is required by mortgage lenders to protect their interests in the event a title defect arises, impacting the property’s value or marketability while the loan is outstanding. The policy amount usually corresponds to the outstanding loan balance and decreases as the mortgage is paid off.

It is recommended for property buyers to obtain both an owner’s policy and a lender’s policy during the property purchase process to ensure comprehensive title protection.

Components of a Title Insurance Policy

Title insurance policies generally have two main components:

  1. Title search and examination: This step involves a thorough examination of public records, legal documents, and other information related to the property’s history to identify any potential title defects, liens, or other issues that may affect the property’s ownership or marketability. The title company often orders a professional title search and examination to verify the property’s title status.

  2. Insurance coverage: The policy provides financial indemnification for covered losses resulting from title defects or claims that arise after the transaction closes. This coverage may include legal defense costs, monetary damages, and other expenses associated with resolving title disputes or liens.

It is essential to review the title insurance policy’s specific terms and conditions, including any exceptions or exclusions, to ensure adequate coverage for potential title issues.

Cost of Title Insurance

The cost of title insurance varies depending on factors such as the property’s location, purchase price, loan amount, and the specific title company involved. Generally, title insurance premiums are a one-time expense paid at the time of closing the property transaction.

In some states, title insurance rates are regulated by the state government, while in others, they may be negotiated between the title company and the property buyer. It is advisable to shop around and compare different title companies’ rates and services to find the best fit for your needs and budget.

In conclusion, title insurance is an essential component of the property buying process that offers protection for property owners and mortgage lenders from unforeseen title defects and claims. It is crucial to understand the different types of policies, policy components, and associated costs to make informed decisions when purchasing title insurance.

Title Insurance Disputes

Common Causes of Disputes

Title insurance disputes typically occur when an issue arises with the ownership or title details of a property. These disputes can arise from a variety of factors, including incorrect property boundaries, unrecorded easements, liens and encumbrances, or forgeries or errors in the documentation.

Incorrect Property Boundaries

One common cause of title insurance disputes is incorrect property boundaries. Property boundaries may be unclear or inaccurately described, which can lead to disagreements over the actual extent of the land being purchased. It is crucial to have a clear understanding of the property’s boundaries, as errors can lead to disputes with neighbors, government agencies, or other parties with an interest in the land.

In some cases, property surveys may be outdated or incorrect, or the descriptions in the title documents may not accurately reflect the actual boundaries. Resolving these issues may require additional research, such as obtaining updated surveys, consulting historic information, or working with neighboring property owners.

Unrecorded Easements

Another common cause of title insurance disputes is unrecorded easements. An easement is a legal right to use another person’s land for a specific purpose, such as access to a road, utilities, or water sources. Easements can be created through agreements between property owners, or they may be established by longstanding historical usage.

Disputes can arise when an easement is not recorded or is improperly recorded, leading to uncertainty about the rights of various parties. In these cases, it may be necessary to research the history of the easement and ensure that any necessary documentation is properly filed to establish the rights of the parties involved.

Liens and Encumbrances

Liens and encumbrances can also lead to title insurance disputes. A lien is a legal claim against a property as security for a debt or other obligation, while an encumbrance is any claim or restriction on the use or transfer of a property.

Common examples of liens and encumbrances include unpaid property taxes, unpaid mortgage debts, and judgments arising from lawsuits. These issues can affect the transfer of a property’s title, as the presence of a lien or encumbrance may require the buyer to assume responsibility for the debt or restriction.

Resolving liens and encumbrances may require negotiation with the party asserting the claim or obtaining a release of the lien or encumbrance. In some cases, it may be necessary to go to court to determine the validity of a lien or encumbrance and how it affects the property’s title.

Forgery or Errors in Documentation

Disputes can also arise from errors in documentation or forgery, such as when a deed or other title document is fraudulent or inaccurately reflects the property’s ownership. This can lead to disputes over the validity of the title and the rightful owner of the property.

In these cases, it is crucial to thoroughly review the title documents, investigate any potential forgeries or errors, and consult with legal counsel experienced in title insurance disputes.

Claimants Involved in Disputes

There are numerous potential claimants involved in title insurance disputes. These parties may include the buyer and seller of the property, neighboring property owners, government agencies (such as tax authorities), financial institutions (in the case of liens and mortgages), and any other parties with a claim or interest in the property.

The involvement of multiple parties in a title insurance dispute can make the resolution process more complicated, as it may require negotiations and compromise to reach a satisfactory solution for all parties.

Potential Consequences of a Dispute

Title insurance disputes can have significant consequences for all parties involved. Consequences of these disputes may include delays in the property transfer process, additional costs related to resolving the issues, potential legal liability, and in some cases, the inability to secure clear title to the property.

Additionally, disputes can lead to financial losses, especially if a property’s value is diminished due to a problem with the title or if the buyer is required to assume responsibility for a lien or encumbrance.

In order to minimize the risks and potential consequences of a title insurance dispute, it is crucial for buyers and sellers to seek assistance from knowledgeable professionals, including real estate agents, title insurance companies, and legal counsel experienced in property and title law.

Filing a Title Insurance Claim

Title insurance is important for both homeowners and mortgage lenders. It protects the interested parties from financial loss and legal problems that could arise due to defects, liens, or encumbrances in the property’s title. If you discover any irregularities in the title or face issues that make it unmarketable after buying a property, you may need to file a title insurance claim. The following sections provide an overview of how to file a claim, the timeline of the process, and what to do if your claim is delayed or denied.

Steps to Filing a Claim

  1. Review your title insurance policy: Your first step should be to review your policy to determine if the issue you have encountered is covered. Title insurance policies vary and are often custom-tailored to the individual’s needs. Carefully read the coverage conditions, exclusions, and limitations of the policy.

  2. Gather necessary documentation: Collect all relevant documentation, such as a copy of the deed, the title insurance policy, any correspondence with the title company, and any other paperwork related to the title issue or encumbrance. These documents will help substantiate your claim and provide essential details regarding the issue.

  3. Notify your title insurance company: Contact your title insurance company or the agent who issued the policy as soon as you become aware of a title defect or potential claim. Provide them with a written, detailed explanation of the issue, along with any supporting documentation. Be sure to ask for instructions on how to proceed with the formal claim process.

  4. Submit a formal claim: Complete and submit the claim form provided by your title insurance company. Make sure you follow their instructions carefully and provide all requested information. Include all relevant documentation and a concise, written statement of the nature of the claim and the facts surrounding it.

  5. Cooperate with the claim investigation: After receiving your claim, the title insurer will launch an investigation to determine the validity of your claim and assess the risk they must assume. Be prepared to cooperate fully with the investigation, providing additional documentation and information as requested.

Timeline and Expectations

The timeline for processing a title insurance claim may vary depending on the complexity and nature of the claim. It usually takes a few weeks to a few months for a title insurer to complete their investigation and make a decision.

During the investigation, the title insurer will analyze the facts and policy provisions relevant to the claim. They may also engage a title specialist, attorney, or other experts to help evaluate the case. You should expect regular communication from the insurer as the investigation proceeds, but it is important to be patient and maintain an open line of communication.

Once the investigation has concluded, the insurer will notify you of the outcome. If your claim is approved, the title company may take several actions, including resolving the title defect, compensating you for any financial losses, or defending you in court if a legal dispute arises.

Handling Delays and Denials

It can be frustrating if your claim process encounters delays, or if your claim is denied altogether. If you are facing delays, contact your title insurance company and inquire about the reasons for the delay. Make sure you understand the timelines and keep meticulous records of your communications.

In the event your claim is denied, first try to understand the reasons for denial. Review your policy and the insurer’s response carefully. If you believe the denial is unjust, consider consulting with a legal professional specializing in real estate or title insurance law. They can review your case, provide guidance, and possibly help contest the denial.

In some cases, mediation, arbitration, or litigation may be necessary to resolve disputes over title insurance claims. It is important to weigh the costs and risks associated with these options carefully and seek legal advice as needed.

Filing a title insurance claim can be a time-consuming and complex process, but understanding the steps, setting the right expectations, and knowing how to handle potential challenges can help ensure a successful outcome.

Legal Remedies for Title Insurance Disputes

Title insurance is a policy that protects property owners and lenders against financial loss resulting from defects in a property’s title. In case of title disputes, having title insurance can provide legal and financial protection to the policyholder. However, disputes can arise between the policyholder and the title insurance company over coverage, claims, or other related issues. In such cases, there are several legal remedies available to resolve title insurance disputes.

Negotiation and Mediation

Negotiation and mediation are alternative dispute resolution (ADR) methods that can be utilized to resolve disputes between the policyholder and the title insurance company before resorting to more formal legal proceedings. Both parties can participate in negotiation and mediation voluntarily, or it can be mandated by their insurance contract.

Negotiation involves direct communication between the disputing parties to reach a mutually acceptable resolution. Parties can negotiate directly or hire professionals, such as attorneys or title insurance specialists, to represent their interests. The objective of negotiation is to reach a compromise and find a solution that satisfies both parties.

Mediation is another form of ADR that involves a neutral third party known as a mediator. The mediator assists the disputing parties in exploring their differences, identifying issues, and guiding them toward a mutually agreeable resolution. The mediator does not make decisions or impose a settlement but facilitates communication to help the parties understand each other’s positions and work together to resolve the dispute. Mediation is often considered more efficient, less expensive, and less adversarial than going to court.


Arbitration is a more formal ADR process in which an impartial arbitrator (or panel of arbitrators) hears both sides of the dispute and renders a binding decision, sometimes called an “award.” Arbitration can be either mandatory or voluntary, depending on the terms of the insurance policy or any applicable laws. The arbitration process is generally less formal and more streamlined than traditional litigation, which allows for quicker resolution of disputes and lower costs.

The arbitrator’s decision is typically binding on both parties, although in some cases, parties may have limited rights to appeal or challenge the arbitrator’s decision in court. If the parties agree to non-binding arbitration, the arbitrator’s decision serves as a guide for how a court might rule, but the parties are free to pursue litigation if they are not satisfied with the outcome.


If negotiations, mediation, and arbitration fail to resolve the title insurance dispute, litigation may be the only remaining option. Litigation involves filing a lawsuit in court and presenting evidence, testimony, and legal arguments before a judge or jury. The court will assess the facts, apply relevant laws, and issue a binding decision in favor of one party.

Litigation can be a lengthy, expensive, and public process that can strain relationships between the parties involved. Still, in some cases, it may be the most suitable option for resolving complex or high-value title insurance disputes or when bad faith or misconduct is alleged against the insurer.

Appealing a Decision

If one of the parties involved in the title insurance dispute is dissatisfied with the outcome of arbitration or litigation, they can appeal the decision to a higher court. Appeal rights and procedures depend on the specific jurisdiction and the rules governing arbitration or litigation.

Appeals typically involve a review of the record, including the legal arguments, evidence, and transcripts from the lower proceedings, rather than a new trial. The appellate court will determine whether any legal errors or significant factual mistakes occurred during the arbitration or litigation process that affected the outcome. If such errors are found, the appellate court can affirm, modify, or reverse the lower court’s decision, or remand the case for further proceedings.

However, it is important to note that appealing a decision may be a time-consuming and expensive process, with no guarantee of success. Parties considering an appeal should carefully weigh the potential benefits against the costs and risks involved.

Prevention and Best Practices

Real estate professionals face numerous challenges, one of which is fraud perpetrated by unscrupulous individuals. To protect yourself from such incidences, it’s crucial to adopt preventive measures and best practices. This article will extensively discuss the following key strategies: conducting a thorough title search, ensuring accuracy in documentation, reviewing title insurance policies, and maintaining clear communication and documentation.

Thorough Title Search

A title search is an essential part of the property buying process, as it helps in identifying any issues or discrepancies related to the property’s ownership. Conducting a thorough title search is crucial in preventing fraudulent transactions and mitigating risks associated with property ownership disputes. A comprehensive title search involves the following steps:

  1. Examine public records: Title search begins with a detailed examination of public records related to the property, such as deeds, land records, and mortgages. This helps in identifying any inconsistencies, liens, or encumbrances that may affect the property’s ownership.

  2. Verify property ownership: Confirm the current property owner and their right to sell the property. This involves checking the deed that transfers the property to the current owner and ensuring that it was executed and recorded correctly.

  3. Investigate property history: A thorough title search should delve into the property’s history, including previous owners, transfers, and transactions. This information helps in detecting any potential fraud or inconsistencies in the property’s title.

  4. Identify any outstanding liens or encumbrances: Ensure that all liens and encumbrances are addressed and cleared before the property transfer.

  5. Consult a title professional: For added security, consult a title professional who can provide expert guidance on potential issues and help resolve any discrepancies in the property’s title.

Accuracy in Documentation

Accuracy in documentation is paramount in any real estate transaction, as it minimizes the risk of fraud and legal disputes. To ensure accuracy in documentation, real estate professionals should:

  1. Double-check all documents: Ensure that all documents are properly reviewed and verified before signing. This includes title documents, deeds of trust, purchase agreements, and closing documents.

  2. Verify identities: Check the identification of all parties involved in the transaction to confirm that they are the legitimate owners or authorized representatives.

  3. Use licensed and reputable professionals: Utilize the services of licensed and reputable professionals, such as title companies, escrow agents, and real estate attorneys, to prepare, review, and authenticate documents.

  4. Keep records: Maintain a record of all documents, transactions, and correspondence in a safe and secure location. This helps in case of disputes or questions regarding the transaction.

Reviewing Title Insurance Policies

Title insurance protects against financial losses resulting from title defects or errors in the public records. Reviewing title insurance policies is an essential preventive measure as it ensures adequate coverage against potential fraud, forgery, and other title-related issues. To effectively review title insurance policies, consider the following steps:

  1. Verify coverage: Ensure that the title insurance policy covers all potential risks and issues identified during the title search.

  2. Read the policy carefully: Familiarize yourself with the policy’s terms, conditions, and exclusions to ensure that it provides adequate coverage for your specific needs.

  3. Understand the claims process: Familiarize yourself with the claims process, as set out in the policy, and gather all necessary documentation to support a potential claim.

Maintaining Clear Communication and Documentation

Clear communication and well-maintained documentation are crucial in preventing real estate fraud. To maintain crystal clear communication and documentation, follow these best practices:

  1. Communicate with all parties involved: Keep all parties, such as buyers, sellers, and real estate agents, informed of any developments or changes throughout the transaction process.

  2. Document all agreements: Ensure that all agreements, negotiations, and commitments are documented in writing to avoid misunderstandings or disputes.

  3. Retain copies and records: Keep a copy of all correspondence, transaction documents, and title searches to serve as evidence in case of disputes or legal issues.

  4. Verify wire transfer instructions: Wire fraud is a common type of real estate fraud. Verify all wire transfer instructions and communicate with trusted parties via known phone numbers or in-person meetings.

Adopting these preventive measures and best practices can significantly reduce the risk of real estate fraud and ensure smooth and secure property transactions. Always remain vigilant and proactive to protect yourself and your clients from potential scams and fraud.

Title Insurance Disputes FAQs

1. Who are the key parties involved in a title insurance dispute?

The key parties involved in a title insurance dispute typically include the property owner, the title insurance company, and any third parties asserting a claim or lien against the property title.

2. What are some common causes of title insurance disputes?

Title insurance disputes may arise from various issues such as errors in public records, unknown easements or restrictions, undisclosed heirs, boundary disputes, and fraud or forgery of documents.

3. How does one resolve a title insurance dispute?

To resolve a title insurance dispute, the property owner should first consult their title insurance policy and notify the insurer of the claim. The insurer may then negotiate with the claimant, defend against the claim in court, or pay a covered loss.

4. What is the role of an attorney during a title insurance dispute?

An attorney helps the property owner by reviewing the title insurance policy, identifying applicable coverage and exclusions, communicating with the title insurance company, and representing the owner in negotiations or litigation.

5. Can a title insurance dispute affect a homeowner’s ability to sell their property?

Yes, a title insurance dispute may impact a homeowner’s ability to sell the property. The presence of a title claim or lien could cause a potential buyer to question the property’s title or require resolution before concluding the sale.

6. How can one prevent title insurance disputes in the future?

To prevent future title insurance disputes, property owners should ensure they obtain a thorough title search during the purchasing process, work with a reputable title insurance company, and maintain accurate records of property ownership and transactions.

About the Author

As a native Washingtonian, Carlos Reyes’ journey in the real estate industry began more than 15 years ago when he started an online real estate company. Since then, he’s helped more than 700 individuals and families as a real estate broker achieve their real estate goals across Virginia, Maryland and Washington, DC.

Carlos now helps real estate agents grow their business by teaching business fundamentals, execution, and leadership.

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