May 2, 2023


In this article, readers will learn about the fundamentals of title insurance, its purpose, and various types of policies. The article will cover the process of obtaining title insurance, the role of title companies, common title insurance exclusions, and how to understand these exclusions in policies.

Furthermore, it discusses endorsements and additional coverage, the procedure for disputes and claims, and how to choose the right title insurance policy by considering various factors and comparing policies and endorsements.

Understanding Title Insurance

Title insurance is an essential part of property transactions in the United States since it offers financial protection to both buyers and lenders in cases of disputes related to the ownership of the property.

In this section, we will explore the definition and purpose of title insurance, the different types of title insurance policies available, the process of obtaining it, and the role of title companies in this industry.

Definition and Purpose of Title Insurance

Title insurance is a type of indemnity insurance policy that protects the insured party against financial loss due to defects in the title of a property or land. A title refers to the legal ownership rights to a property or land, including the right to use, inherit, sell, or lease the property.

Title insurance is designed to protect the insured against the risk of loss arising from disputes over ownership and other issues that may not be discovered during the transaction process.

Title insurance serves two primary purposes:

  1. Risk prevention: Title insurance helps to minimize the risk of financial loss in the event of undetected issues with the property’s title, such as undisclosed heirs, fraud, forgery, incorrect information in public records, liens, and encroachments. By conducting a thorough title search, title companies work to identify and correct any potential issues before issuing a title insurance policy.

  2. Financial protection: Title insurance provides financial protection to both the property owner and the lender in the event of a title defect that is not discovered during the transaction process. In case a claim is made against the title, the title insurance company will defend the policyholder in court and pay any compensation or settle the claim accordingly.

Types of Title Insurance Policies

There are two primary types of title insurance policies: owner’s title insurance and lender’s title insurance.

  1. Owner’s title insurance: This type of policy protects the buyer of the property against potential loss due to defects in the property’s title that were not discovered during the title search. An owner’s title insurance policy typically covers the property’s purchase price and lasts for as long as the policyholder, or their heirs, own the property. This type of policy is optional, but it is highly recommended as it ensures a buyer’s investment is protected.

  2. Lender’s title insurance: This type of policy is required by most lenders and protects the lender’s financial interest in the property. A lender’s title policy covers up to the outstanding mortgage amount at the time a claim is filed. It remains in effect until the mortgage is paid off or refinanced. Note that a lender’s title insurance policy does not provide any protection for the property owner, which is why obtaining an owner’s policy is crucial.

Process of Obtaining Title Insurance

The process of obtaining title insurance usually consists of the following steps:

  1. Title search: The first step involves conducting a thorough title search to identify any potential ownership disputes or other title defects. This process typically includes a review of public records, historical documents, and potentially interviews with previous property owners or interested parties.

  2. Examination and interpretation of the title: After the title search, the title company will examine the collected documents to identify any potential issues with the ownership of the property. The company will then work to resolve these issues before issuing a policy.

  3. Preparation of the title commitment and policy: Once all issues have been addressed, the title company will prepare a title commitment, which provides a snapshot of the property’s title status and lists any exceptions or requirements for the issuance of the policy. The title commitment is then reviewed and approved by both the buyer and lender before the issuance of the title insurance policy.

  4. Payment of the premium: Upon approval of the title commitment, the policyholder pays a one-time premium for the title insurance policy. The exact cost of the policy will vary depending on factors such as the property’s location, purchase price, and loan amount.

The Role of Title Companies

Title companies play a significant role in the real estate industry, as they are responsible for providing essential services such as conducting title searches, resolving title issues, and issuing title insurance policies. They act as neutral third parties in property transactions by ensuring that the buyer, seller, and lender all have a clear understanding of the property’s title and any potential risks associated with it.

In addition to facilitating the process of obtaining title insurance, title companies also provide escrow services, which help to streamline the closing process by holding and disbursing funds on behalf of the buyer and seller. Overall, the role of title companies is crucial to ensuring a smooth, transparent, and secure property transaction process.

Common Title Insurance Exclusions

Title insurance is a policy that protects homeowners and lenders from financial losses due to defects in the real estate title. It covers legal claims or disputes that may arise over property ownership. However, it is essential to understand that title insurance does not cover every type of defect or issue; some exclusions exist.

Pre-existing Liens and Encumbrances

Liens and encumbrances are claims on a property due to unpaid debts, taxes, or other obligations. These may include outstanding mortgages, tax liens, or judgments against the property owner for unpaid debts. Title insurance will generally not cover pre-existing liens or encumbrances against the property, as they are considered known issues that should have been resolved before the property’s sale or refinancing.

For example, if the previous owner had unpaid property taxes that were not discovered during the title search process, the buyer could be responsible for paying the overdue taxes. To avoid this potential liability, buyers should perform due diligence and ensure that all outstanding liens and encumbrances are resolved before closing.

Local and State Laws

Title insurance does not cover issues related to local and state laws specific to property rights, zoning, or land use. For example, if a homeowner discovers after closing that their property is located in a floodplain and subject to specific building restrictions because of local zoning laws, title insurance will not cover any financial losses resulting from these restrictions.

Prospective buyers should research local and state laws and regulations that may impact their property rights and future use of the property. In some cases, a real estate attorney or local zoning expert can help clarify any potential issues.


Easements are a common exclusion in title insurance policies. An easement grants a third party the right to use or access a portion of the property for a specific purpose. Common easements include utility easements, access easements, and conservation easements. Title insurance will not cover disputes or financial losses related to existing easements on a property, as these should be disclosed and addressed during the property sale or refinancing process.

It’s essential for buyers to understand the easements affecting their property and any potential issues or restrictions they may cause. Reviewing property records and discussing any easements with a real estate attorney can provide valuable insight into potential issues.

Boundary Disputes

Boundary disputes arise when there is a disagreement between property owners about where the property lines are drawn. Title insurance policies do not cover boundary disputes because these issues are typically separate from the title itself. To avoid future boundary disputes, homeowners should have a survey of their property completed by a licensed surveyor to clearly establish property lines and boundaries.

Unrecorded Rights

Title insurance generally covers defects and issues that are part of the public record. However, it does not cover unrecorded rights or claims to the property that are not part of the public record. Examples of unrecorded rights include claims by previous owners or other parties that are not recorded with the local government or land records office. Such claims can include oral agreements or claims based on adverse possession.

To protect against unrecorded rights, buyers should perform thorough due diligence, including speaking with neighbors and previous owners to uncover any potential unrecorded agreements or disputes.

Mineral and Water Rights

Title insurance policies often exclude coverage for mineral and water rights. These rights control the property owner’s ability to access and use natural resources located on or under their land. If a previous owner sold or reserved mineral or water rights, the new owner may not have control over these resources.

In some cases, this may result in mining or drilling activities on the property without the owner’s consent or financial compensation. Buyers should inquire about mineral and water rights during the purchase process to avoid any surprises or disputes.

Environmental Hazards

Environmental hazards, such as contamination from hazardous materials, oil spills, or underground storage tanks, are typically not covered by title insurance. Failure to disclose environmental hazards during the property sale process can lead to significant financial losses and potential health risks.

Prospective buyers should conduct a thorough environmental assessment of the property before closing to identify and address any potential environmental hazards. This may include hiring an environmental consultant or testing the property for hazardous materials.

Understanding Exclusions in Title Insurance Policies

Title insurance policies are designed to protect property owners and lenders from financial loss due to defects in the title of a property or other issues that may arise during the ownership or transfer of the property.

These issues can include liens, encumbrances, easements, and other defects that can affect the property’s ownership. While title insurance policies generally provide broad protection, there are certain exclusions that exist to protect the insurer from risks outside their scope of coverage.

Scheduled Exclusions

Scheduled exclusions are specific items listed within the title insurance policy that are not covered by the insurer. These exclusions are typically known issues or limitations on the property that have been discovered during the title search process. During the title search, the insurer will compile a list of these known issues, which can include:

  1. Encroachments or boundary line disputes.
  2. Recorded easements or rights of way.
  3. Liens, such as tax liens, mechanic’s liens, or judgment liens.
  4. Restrictions or covenants affecting the use of the property.

The scheduled exclusions listed in the title insurance policy will not be covered by the insurer in the event of a claim. It is essential for property buyers and their legal counsel to carefully review the scheduled exclusions to ensure they understand the limitations of their title insurance coverage and take appropriate measures to resolve any potential issues before closing on the property.

For example, a property buyer may want to negotiate the removal of a lien or address an easement dispute before closing if it might have a significant impact on their property ownership.

General Exclusions

General exclusions are standard exclusions that apply to most title insurance policies, regardless of the specific nature of the property or transaction. These exclusions are not unique to any property and typically relate to issues that are beyond the control of the insurer or the insured. Some examples of general exclusions include:

  1. Losses due to government regulations, such as zoning or land-use restrictions.
  2. Issues arising from environmental matters, such as pollution, contamination, or wetlands.
  3. Losses resulting from disputes between joint tenants or tenants in common.
  4. Native land claims or issues related to Aboriginal title.

These general exclusions help protect the insurer from claims relating to matters outside the scope of their title research and policy coverage. Property buyers should be aware of these general exclusions and understand that some risks may not be covered under their title insurance policy.

Standard Exclusions vs. Custom Exclusions

Standard exclusions are those that are common to most title insurance policies and are typically found in the general exclusions section. Custom exclusions, on the other hand, are specific to a particular property or transaction and are typically negotiated between the parties involved. Custom exclusions can be added to a title insurance policy upon request or negotiated as part of the policy’s terms.

For example, if a property is known to have a specific issue such as a pending lawsuit, a custom exclusion may be added to the title insurance policy to exclude coverage for any losses related to that lawsuit. This type of exclusion would be unique to the specific property and would not be a part of a standard title insurance policy.

When reviewing a title insurance policy, property buyers and their legal counsel should pay close attention to both standard and custom exclusions to ensure they understand the scope of coverage provided by the policy. This understanding will help property buyers make informed decisions about their real estate transactions and protect their long-term property rights and investments.

Endorsements and Additional Coverage

Endorsements and additional coverage in title insurance policies provide added protection for the policyholder against specific risks associated with a property. These endorsements are often issued by the American Land Title Association (ALTA) or state-specific organizations, while custom endorsements can be tailored to the unique needs of a specific transaction.

In this section, we will discuss ALTA endorsements, state-specific endorsements, custom endorsements, and the cost of additional coverage.

ALTA Endorsements

The American Land Title Association (ALTA) is a national trade association comprising title insurance companies, title agents, and abstracters. ALTA creates standard forms for title insurance policies and endorsements, which are generally accepted throughout the industry. These standardized endorsements are designed to address common property risks, and are often referred to as ALTA endorsements.

Some of the most common ALTA endorsements include:

  1. ALTA 3.1 – Zoning: This endorsement protects the policyholder in case the property’s zoning is determined to be different from what was disclosed during the transaction. This could include uncovering violations or illegal uses of the property.
  2. ALTA 8.1 – Environmental Protection: This endorsement offers coverage against loss or damage due to threatened or actual enforcement of environmental protection laws that could affect the property.
  3. ALTA 9 – Restrictions, Encroachments, and Minerals: This endorsement provides protection against violations of covenants, conditions, and restrictions (CC&R); encroachments by or onto the property, and damage to improvements resulting from mineral extraction.
  4. ALTA 17 – Access and Entry: This endorsement covers the policyholder in case the property does not have actual physical access to a public street or private road.

State-specific Endorsements

In addition to ALTA endorsements, there are many state-specific endorsements available to address issues that are relevant in certain states. These endorsements often deal with state-specific laws and regulations that affect real estate transactions within that state.

For example, in California, a homeowner may purchase a CLTA Standard Coverage Policy that includes specific endorsements pertaining to California real estate laws. These endorsements provide additional protections that the ALTA policies may not have, such as those concerning boundary line disputes and easements.

Custom Endorsements

Custom endorsements can be created to address unique risks that are not covered by standard ALTA or state-specific endorsements. These endorsements are tailored to the specific needs of a property or transaction and may be negotiated between the policyholder and the title insurance company.

An example of a custom endorsement could be one that addresses a potential future issue, such as the possible construction of a nearby highway that could impact the property’s value.

Cost of Additional Coverage

The cost of adding endorsements or additional coverage to a title insurance policy varies depending on the specific endorsement and the risk associated with it. Generally, adding endorsements increases the premium for the title insurance policy.

However, the cost of these endorsements is often minimal compared to the potential financial losses that could result from not having the proper protection in place.

When considering additional coverage or endorsements to a title insurance policy, it is important to weigh the potential risks against the cost of the added coverage. Homebuyers and sellers should consult with their attorney, real estate agent, or title insurance company to determine the necessary endorsements and coverage for their specific transaction.

Disputes and Claims in Title Insurance

Title insurance protects property buyers and lenders against loss or damage due to defects or disputes in the property’s title. These defects can include fraud, forgery, undisclosed heirs or spouses, or other issues that could ultimately conflict with the rights of the buyer.

Disputes and claims in title insurance typically involve the process of filing a claim, investigation and resolution, indemnification, and defending against claims.

How to File a Claim

In order to file a claim, the insured party must notify the title insurance company as soon as they become aware of an issue affecting the title to their property. It’s essential to provide the insurer with complete and accurate information regarding the issue.

Depending on the company’s requirements, you might need to submit a written notice of claim or complete a claim form. Make sure to include any documentation that supports your claim, such as letters, emails, or court documents.

In the notice of claim, it is vital to describe the problem clearly and concisely. Explain how you believe it affects your ownership rights and why you think the title insurer is responsible for covering the issue under the terms of your policy.

It’s also crucial to keep the insurer informed of any developments concerning the claim, even if that means sharing potentially bad news. Transparency and honesty are crucial when dealing with insurance companies, and hidden facts could weaken your position.

Investigation and Resolution

Once the title insurer receives a claim, it will initiate an investigation process to determine the severity of the title issue and verify the validity of the claim. The title insurer might appoint a claim examiner or hire independent experts to analyze the matter further. They may also request additional information and documents from the claimant to support the claim.

Upon successful completion of the investigation, the title insurer will decide whether to cover the claim, settle it, or deny coverage. They must provide the insured party with their decision and any applicable reasoning.

If the title insurer determines that the claim is valid, they might opt to resolve the problem by correcting the defect, such as paying off an outstanding lien or mortgage, or negotiate with third parties to obtain a clear title. In some cases, the insurer may also decide to cover the costs of litigation if the matter goes to court.


If the title insurer accepts the claim, they will indemnify the insured party against any covered loss or damage that results from the title defect or dispute. This indemnification can include compensating the claimant for losses incurred due to a decrease in the property’s value, paying legal fees, or covering other costs associated with resolving the title issue.

The title insurer’s obligation to indemnify the insured party is generally subject to the terms and conditions of the insurance policy, and any exclusion, limitation, or condition specified therein. It’s essential to understand the coverage and restrictions in your title insurance policy to know the extent of indemnification in case of a claim.

Defending Against Claims

In some instances, a third party might initiate a claim or lawsuit against the insured party, alleging that they have a superior right or interest in the property. If this occurs, the title insurer has a duty to defend the insured party in accordance with the policy provisions.

The title insurer will appoint legal counsel to represent the insured party and cover the costs of defense, including attorneys’ fees and court costs. The insurer’s obligation to defend the insured party will continue until the claim is resolved, either through settlement or a final judgment.

If the title insurer successfully defends the insured party against the third-party claim or lawsuit, the insured party’s title to the property will remain intact. However, if the litigation results in an adverse judgment or settlement that impairs the insured party’s title, the title insurer may have to indemnify the insured party for any covered losses, as explained earlier in the indemnification section.

Choosing the Right Title Insurance Policy

Title insurance is a necessary and important aspect of purchasing a property. The policy provides protection from financial loss and legal challenges that may occur due to problems or defects in property ownership, such as liens, encumbrances, or easements. Choosing the right title insurance policy is crucial to ensuring the security of your investment.

Factors to Consider

When choosing the right title insurance policy, it’s essential to consider several factors that can impact your coverage and costs. These factors include:

  1. Coverage: In general, there are two types of title insurance policies, Owner’s title insurance and Lender’s title insurance. Owner’s title insurance protects the property owner, while Lender’s title insurance protects the mortgage lender. As a property buyer, you’ll mainly need to focus on the owner’s title insurance policy.

  2. Cost: The cost of title insurance varies based on the location, policy type, and property value. It’s essential to inquire about costs from different providers and compare them to get the best deal possible.

  3. Financial stability of the insurer: Check the financial stability of the title insurance company you’re considering. You want to choose a company that’ll be around should an issue arise down the road. You can investigate the insurer’s rating through various rating agencies, such as A.M. Best, Fitch Ratings, and Standard & Poor’s.

  4. Reputation: It’s essential to work with a reputable title insurance company. Seek recommendations from family, friends, and professionals like real estate agents, attorneys, and mortgage brokers who have experience in the industry.

Comparing Policies and Endorsements

Comparing policies and endorsements is crucial in ensuring you have the right level of coverage. In order to do so, make sure to:

  1. Read and understand the terms and conditions of each policy.

  2. Ensure that the coverage inclusions and exclusions match your needs and the specifics of the property you’re purchasing.

  3. Include additional endorsements as needed. Endorsements are optional coverages that can be added to the base policy to provide extra protection for specific risks, such as zoning issues, boundary disputes, or adverse possession.

  4. Compare premiums and policy deductibles across different providers.

Working with Title Companies and Agents

Title companies and agents play a vital role in the title insurance process. When choosing a title company or agent, consider:

  1. Their experience and expertise in the industry.

  2. The services they offer, such as title search, title examination, issuance of policy, and settlement or closing services.

  3. Their responsiveness and availability to answer your questions and address your concerns throughout the process.

  4. Reviews and testimonials from past clients.

Adjusting Coverage Based on Property Type

Different types of properties come with their own unique risks and challenges. Therefore, it’s essential to adjust your title insurance coverage based on the type of property you’re purchasing. For instance:

  1. Residential properties such as single-family homes, condominiums, or townhouses may require standard title insurance coverage, while commercial properties may need additional endorsements to cover risks specific to their use and operation.

  2. New construction properties might need additional coverage to protect against mechanic’s liens or claims from subcontractors who haven’t been paid.

  3. Properties with a history of ownership disputes, boundary issues, or easements may require specialized endorsements to ensure all potential risks are covered.

In summary, choosing the right title insurance policy involves considering various factors, comparing policies and endorsements, working with reliable title companies and agents, and adjusting coverage based on a property. Taking the time to research and evaluate your options will provide peace of mind and protect your financial interests in the long run.

Title Insurance Exclusions FAQs

1. What are Title Insurance Exclusions?

Title Insurance Exclusions are specific situations or conditions which are not covered by a title insurance policy. These can include known title disputes, government actions, and defects found after closing the transaction.

2. How do Title Insurance Exclusions affect policyholders?

Policyholders typically encounter consequences when an excluded situation arises as they will not receive coverage from the title insurance company. As a result, policyholders may face financial loss and property disputes without the assistance of the insurer.

3. Why do title insurance policies have exclusions?

Exclusions exist in title insurance to avoid covering known risks or issues that can compromise the property’s ownership, use, or value. By limiting coverage to unknown risks, title insurers can effectively manage their own risk levels and keep premium costs reasonable.

4. What are some common Title Insurance Exclusions?

Common exclusions can include pre-existing zoning violations, restrictions on land use, easements, reservations or exceptions, and any known defects or disputes, which are disclosed either in the title search or the title commitment.

5. Can Title Insurance Exclusions be removed or modified?

In some cases, title insurance exclusions can be removed or modified by the underwriter. This often involves addressing the specific issue or providing additional documentation to satisfy the insurer’s concerns, but these changes may result in higher premium costs.

6. How can buyers identify and understand Title Insurance Exclusions?

Buyers should carefully read their title commitment or policy document to identify exclusions. Consulting with a knowledgeable attorney or title insurance agent may help clarify and understand the implications of these exclusions on the property’s ownership and value.

About the Author

As a native Washingtonian, Carlos Reyes’ journey in the real estate industry began more than 15 years ago when he started an online real estate company. Since then, he’s helped more than 700 individuals and families as a real estate broker achieve their real estate goals across Virginia, Maryland and Washington, DC.

Carlos now helps real estate agents grow their business by teaching business fundamentals, execution, and leadership.

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