May 15, 2023


In this comprehensive guide to title insurance, readers will learn about its definition, importance, and different types of policies such as Owner’s and Lender’s. The guide also delves into what title insurance covers and does not cover, the role of title companies, the steps in the title insurance process, and how to handle claims.

Additionally, the article provides insights on calculating title insurance premiums, ways to save on title insurance, and common misconceptions about it.

Understanding Title Insurance

Definition and Importance

Title insurance is a specialized form of indemnity insurance that protects both property owners and mortgage lenders against any defects, disputes, or issues with property ownership resulting from a number of possible factors, such as liens, encumbrances, flawed records, forgery, and fraud. Essentially, it is an assurance that the property owner holds a clear and marketable title to the property.

The importance of title insurance cannot be overstated when purchasing or refinancing a property. The primary reason being that it is the only form of insurance that safeguards against potential issues or disputes arising from past events or transactions. Without title insurance, new homeowners or lenders may be held financially responsible for any issues discovered after closing on the property, potentially resulting in financial losses, legal disputes, and the inability to sell or refinance the property in the future.

Types of Title Insurance Policies

There are two primary types of title insurance policies – owner’s policy and lender’s policy – each designed to protect the interests of different parties involved in a real estate transaction.

Owner’s Policy

An owner’s policy is an insurance policy designed to protect the property owner from any unforeseen claims or disputes associated with the title of the property. This policy usually covers the full property value and remains in effect as long as the property owner or their heirs possess an interest in the property.

Benefits of an owner’s policy include coverage for legal defense costs in case a claim is brought against the title, as well as compensation for any financial losses incurred due to title defects.

Lender’s Policy

A lender’s policy, also referred to as a loan policy or mortgagee policy, is an insurance policy specifically designed to protect the lender’s interests in case of title defects or disputes. This policy only covers the outstanding loan amount, gradually decreasing as the loan is paid down over time.

A lender’s policy is typically required by mortgage lenders as a condition for loan approval and is separate from the owner’s policy, meaning that the borrower often pays for both during the real estate transaction.

What Title Insurance Covers

Title insurance provides coverage for various issues and disputes related to the ownership and history of a property. The following are some of the main aspects of coverage:

Title Defects

A title defect is any irregularity or issue in the ownership history of a property that affects the validity, marketability, or insurability of the title. Title insurance covers scenarios such as undisclosed heirs, forged deeds, or unknown prior mortgages that may result in challenges to property ownership.

Claims and Encumbrances

Title insurance also covers the policyholder from claims or encumbrances, such as liens or judgments, which may have been attached to the property by previous owners. These can include tax liens, mechanic’s liens, and even undisclosed or improperly recorded easements.

Legal Issues

In some cases, disputes over property ownership may arise due to legal issues such as fraud, forgery, or error in public records. Title insurance policies protect policyholders by covering legal expenses and compensating for losses related to such disputes.

What Title Insurance Does Not Cover

Although title insurance offers valuable protection to property owners and mortgage lenders, it does not cover every possible issue or eventuality. The following are some of the typical exclusions and limitations:

Exclusions and Exceptions

Title insurance policies generally come with certain exclusions and exceptions, which are events or issues that the insurer will not cover. These can include government-regulated zoning laws, environmental regulations, easements, and restrictions mentioned in the property deed.

Post-Policy Defects

Title insurance covers issues and disputes that have originated before the policy’s effective date. As a result, it does not provide protection against defects or claims that surface after the issuance of the policy.

Examples of post-policy defects might include boundary disputes with a neighboring property owner or the discovery of fraudulent activities or forgeries in property transactions that occurred after the policy was issued.

Role of Title Companies

Title companies play a crucial role in the real estate industry by providing essential services during the buying, selling or refinancing of property. Their primary purpose is to ensure that the property’s title is clear of any defects or issues that can affect the rightful ownership of the property.

They also offer escrow and settlement services to facilitate a smooth transaction between buyer and seller. As a result, title companies help mitigate risk and provide peace of mind for all stakeholders involved in a real estate transaction.

Title Company Services

Title companies offer several valuable services to their clients to ensure the smooth execution of real estate transactions. The main responsibilities of a title company include title search, title examination, and escrow and settlement services.

Title Search

One of the primary tasks of a title company is to perform a title search. This involves conducting an extensive public records search to identify any potential issues or defects in the title of the property. These issues may include liens, encumbrances, easements, judgments, defects in the public record, missing heirs, unpaid taxes, or other legal claims that could affect the rightful ownership of the property.

By identifying any potential problems, the title company helps ensure a clear title, enabling the buyer to take full ownership of the property.

Title Examination

Once the title search is complete, the title company conducts a thorough examination of the documents and records identified during the search. The purpose of the title examination is to verify the accuracy of the information gathered and to evaluate the legal status of the property.

The title examiner will create a report, known as a title commitment or title abstract, which outlines any issues or discrepancies related to the ownership of the property. This report helps the buyer or lender understand the current state of the title, allowing them to work with the seller to resolve any outstanding issues before finalizing the transaction.

Escrow and Settlement Services

Title companies often provide escrow and settlement services, acting as an impartial third party to facilitate the closing process. They handle the collection, disbursement, and management of funds between the buyer, seller, and lender. They also prepare and submit the necessary documentation, such as deeds and title transfers, to the appropriate agencies. Finally, the title company issues title insurance, a policy that protects the buyer and lender from financial loss due to defects in the title, after the closing and settlement process.

Selecting a Title Company

Several factors should be considered when choosing a title company, such as company reputation, cost, and availability.

Company Reputation

It is essential to select a title company that has a strong reputation in the industry for providing excellent service, accurate work, and timely results. Conducting research, seeking referrals, and reading reviews can help identify companies that meet these criteria. A reputable title company will have a proven track record of success and customer satisfaction.

Cost Comparison

Title company fees can vary from one company to another, so it’s important to compare costs when selecting a title company. It can be helpful to request quotes from multiple companies and compare their fees and services to make an informed decision. Keep in mind that cheaper isn’t always better – it’s essential to balance cost with the quality of the services provided.

Availability and Convenience

The availability and convenience of a title company can also be important factors when making your selection. A title company that is easily accessible, either locally or through online services, can make the closing process go more smoothly. Additionally, a company that offers flexible hours or appointment times can help accommodate the schedules of the buyer, seller, and lender.

In summary, title companies play a critical role in real estate transactions by ensuring the property’s title is clear and free of defects, providing escrow and settlement services, and issuing title insurance. When selecting a title company, consider their reputation, costs, and availability to ensure a smooth, secure, and successful real estate transaction.

Steps in the Title Insurance Process

Initiating the Process

To initiate the title insurance process, the prospective buyer or their agent must complete a title insurance application with a title company. This initial stage helps provide necessary information to the title company, which is used for carrying out various tasks like title search and examination.

Completing a Title Insurance Application: The title insurance application is typically completed by the buyer, their attorney, or the buyer’s real estate agent. The application comprises essential details such as the buyer’s and seller’s names, property address, purchase price, loan amount, anticipated closing date, etc. It is essential to provide accurate information in the application, as any errors or omissions might delay the process or cause title issues.

Providing Information to the Title Company: Apart from completing the application form, the buyer, agent, or attorney must provide relevant documents to the title company. These documents may include the executed purchase agreement, deed, mortgage or trust deed, previous title policies or abstracts, etc. Providing these documents promptly will help the title company conduct the title search and examination more efficiently.

Title Search and Examination

The title search and examination is a crucial step in the title insurance process. It involves reviewing property and legal records to identify and analyze potential issues related to the property’s title.

Property and Legal Records Review: In this stage, a title examiner reviews various public records like deeds, wills, mortgages, liens, abstracts, and judgments relevant to the property. The review’s aim is to trace the property’s ownership history and check for any unpaid taxes, unsatisfied mortgages, outstanding judgments, or other title-related issues.

Identification and Analysis of Potential Issues: The title examiner identifies potential title issues from the review and analyzes their significance. Some common title issues include ownership disputes, unknown heirs, forgery, encumbrances, or liens against the property. Based on the findings, the title company may decide to resolve these issues, exclude them from coverage, or refuse to issue a title insurance policy.

Obtaining a Commitment for Title Insurance

After the completion of the title search and examination, the title company issues a commitment for title insurance. The commitment serves as a preliminary report detailing the coverage terms, requirements, and exceptions.

Preliminary Report: The preliminary report summarizes the findings from the title search and examination. It lists the current property owner, property description, and any title defects, liens, or encumbrances affecting the property.

Requirements and Exceptions: Based on the findings, the title company may list specific requirements that the buyer or seller must fulfill before the title policy is issued. These requirements may include clearing liens, resolving title defects, or recording required documents. The commitment also lists exceptions, which are items not covered by the title insurance policy.

Commitment Issuance: Upon completion of the preliminary report and addressing the requirements and exceptions, the title company issues a commitment for title insurance. The commitment signifies that the title company agrees to issue a title insurance policy once the listed requirements are satisfied.

Closing and Escrow

The closing and escrow process involves reviewing and signing documents, transferring funds, and recording relevant documents to complete the property transaction.

Reviewing and Signing Documents: During the closing process, the buyer, seller, and their agents review and sign various documents like the deed, mortgage, or trust deed. Legal assistance can help clarify any doubts and ensure that all parties understand the terms agreed upon in the transaction.

Funds Transfer and Settlement Statement: The closing agent or escrow officer prepares a settlement statement listing all the charges and credits related to the transaction. After reviewing the statement, the buyer and seller transfer the necessary funds to the escrow account.

Recordation and Disbursement: Once all the documents are signed, and funds are in the escrow account, the closing agent records the deed and mortgage or trust deed with the appropriate county office. This recordation confirms the property’s title is transferred to the buyer, and the mortgage or trust deed is valid. Following this, the closing agent disburses the funds from the escrow account to the appropriate parties.

Receiving and Reviewing the Title Insurance Policy

After successfully closing the property transaction, the title company issues the title insurance policy. The buyer should review the policy and file it for safekeeping.

Policy Issuance: The title company prepares the title insurance policy and delivers it to the buyer or their attorney. The policy includes information on the property, coverage details, policy terms, and any endorsements that supplement the standard coverage.

Confirming Coverage and Endorsements: It is essential for the buyer to review the policy and confirm that it accurately reflects the coverage agreed upon during the commitment stage. This includes checking for any additional endorsements that were requested for specific coverage.

Filing and Storage of Policy: Finally, the buyer or their attorney should safely file the title insurance policy, as it serves as proof of coverage in case of any title disputes or claims in the future. Having easy access to the policy can help expedite the resolution process for any potential title issues.

Handling Title Insurance Claims

Identifying Claims and Coverage

When a title defect arises and threatens your ownership rights, the first step in handling the situation is to determine if your title insurance policy covers it. Not all title claims are alike, and it’s crucial to understand the extent of your coverage.

Potential Claims and Defects:

There are several types of title defects, and each of them can give rise to a potential claim:

  1. Undisclosed heirs – When unknown or missing heirs appear and claim an interest in the property.
  2. Forgery and Fraud – When someone forges the signatures on the chain of title or a person signs a property sale deed without the legal authority to do so.
  3. Recording errors – Mistakes in the public records, such as incorrect data entry or misindexed documents.
  4. Encroachments and boundary disputes – When a neighboring property owner claims ownership rights over a portion of your property.
  5. Liens – When unknown or undisclosed liens (debts) associated with the property are discovered post-sale.

Policy and Endorsement Review:

To identify if your title insurance policy covers a potential claim, you will need to review your policy and any endorsements you have. Owner’s and lender’s policies typically have different coverages. Depending on the title insurance company and the underwriting standards, the policies will outline what is covered and what is excluded. Certain endorsements may broaden your coverage or narrow the exclusions.

It is crucial to carefully read and understand your policy and any endorsements, as they will determine your qualifications for a title insurance claim.

Submitting a Title Insurance Claim

Notice of Claim and Documentation:

If you have determined that your title policy provides coverage for a specific claim, it’s time to notify your title insurance company. You are required to promptly notify them in writing as soon as you become aware of the issue. Your notice of claim should include:

  1. Policy number, name, and address of the insured.
  2. A brief description of the claim and the property in question.
  3. Copies of any relevant documents supporting your claim.

You may also be asked to provide other documents, such as closing statements or correspondence with third parties, during the claim investigation.

Claim Investigation:

Upon receiving your notice of claim, the title insurance company will commence a claim investigation. It will primarily review the reported defect, its connection to your ownership rights, and the policy coverage. The company might also conduct a public records search or hire legal counsel to obtain additional information and assess the potential risks.

Resolution of Title Insurance Claims

Claim Payment:

After the claim investigation, the title insurance company will propose a course of action depending on the nature of the claim and the policy coverage. In some instances, the company might opt to compensate you financially for the loss in property value or pay off any liens or encumbrances.

Legal Defense and Litigation Support:

In cases where the title insurance company opts to protect your ownership rights, it may provide legal defense and guidance. The company will hire an attorney on your behalf and cover the costs of defending your ownership rights in court.

Claims Denial and Appeals:

There are instances where a title insurance company may deny a claim based on the policy coverage or investigation findings. Claims can be denied if the alleged defect falls within the scope of the policy’s exclusions or if the claimant fails to meet the policy requirements. In such cases, it’s crucial to review the denial decision and consult with legal counsel if necessary to explore other remedies or appeal the decision if you believe your claim should be covered.

Costs and Considerations

Calculating Title Insurance Premiums

Title insurance premiums vary depending on several factors, including state regulations, property value, loan amount, and any additional endorsements or services required. Understanding these factors can help you make an informed decision when purchasing title insurance.

State Regulations and Rating Manuals

Title insurance premium rates are often regulated at the state level, with each state having its own rules and guidelines for determining the cost. In some states, the Department of Insurance sets the premium rates, while in others, title insurers are required to file their rates with the state for approval. Many states use rating manuals or schedules to calculate the premium, which can be found on the state’s department of insurance website or through title insurance companies.

Property Value and Loan Amount

Title insurance premiums are typically based on the property’s value and the loan amount. A higher-priced property or loan amount will generally result in a higher premium due to the increased risk for the title insurer. Additionally, lenders may require a separate lender’s policy that provides coverage for the amount of the mortgage loan. The cost for a lender’s title insurance policy will generally depend on the loan amount and may be included in your closing costs.

Endorsements and Additional Services

Endorsements are additional coverages or provisions that can be added to a title insurance policy. They provide extra protection for specific issues that may not be covered under the standard policy. For example, an endorsement may provide coverage for easements, encroachments, or mineral rights. The cost of endorsements will vary depending on the specific coverage needed and are typically an additional charge on top of the base premium.

Ways to Save on Title Insurance

It’s possible to save on title insurance premiums by negotiating with the title company, shopping for lower rates, or obtaining reissue rates and discounts.

Negotiating with the Title Company

Although title insurance premiums can be regulated, some title companies may have flexibility in their pricing. You can try to negotiate the premium by discussing the specifics of your transaction and asking if any discounts are available.

Shopping for Lower Rates

While premium rates may be regulated, other charges, such as title search, examination, and closing fees, can vary between title companies. It’s important to shop around and compare different title insurance providers to find the best overall price for your transaction. Make sure to request written quotes, including a detailed breakdown of all fees, to make informed comparisons.

Obtaining Reissue Rates and Discounts

Reissue rates are discounted title insurance rates offered to homeowners who are refinancing their mortgage or have recently purchased a property with an existing title insurance policy. If you are eligible for a reissue rate, the savings can be significant. Ask your title company or agent if you qualify for a reissue rate or other available discounts.

Common Misconceptions about Title Insurance

Misconceptions about title insurance can cloud your understanding of its value and purpose. Here, we clear up some common misunderstandings.

Confusion with Other Types of Insurance

Title insurance is often confused with other types of property insurance, such as homeowner’s or flood insurance. While other policies cover future events or damages, title insurance provides protection against past ownership issues or defects that could impact your property ownership rights.

Perceived Lack of Value or Need

Some people question the need for title insurance, believing their property has no title issues. However, title defects can be hidden or undiscovered, even after a thorough title search. Title insurance ensures that your investment is protected even when unexpected issues arise.

Transferring or Extending Policies

Title insurance policies do not transfer between owners or extend to future transactions. When a property is sold or refinanced, a new policy must be purchased to protect the new owner or lender. It’s essential to understand your policy coverage and limitations to ensure your property remains protected during any changes in ownership or financing.

Title Insurance Process FAQs

1. What is the purpose of title insurance during a real estate transaction?

Title insurance protects homebuyers and mortgage lenders from potential risks, such as property ownership disputes, liens, and fraud, that may arise after the purchase. It ensures clear ownership and helps avoid financial losses resulting from existing claims against the property (Ramonas, 2020).

2. How can a homebuyer obtain title insurance?

To obtain title insurance, a homebuyer needs to choose a title insurance company or an attorney experienced in real estate transactions. The chosen professional will conduct a title search, review the property’s history, and issue the insurance policy, commonly at closing (Investopedia, 2021).

3. What is the difference between a lender’s title policy and an owner’s title policy?

A lender’s title policy safeguards the mortgage lender’s financial interest in the property, while an owner’s title policy protects the homebuyer’s financial investment. Both policies cover potential title defects or claims, but the owner’s policy remains effective as long as the owner owns the property (Ramonas, 2020).

4. How much does title insurance cost, and who is responsible for the payment?

Title insurance costs vary depending on factors like the property value, location, and coverage level. It’s typically a one-time premium, paid at closing. The party responsible for payment can differ based on local custom or agreement between the buyer and the seller (Investopedia, 2021).

5. Can a property owner transfer their existing title insurance policy to a new owner?

Title insurance policies cannot be transferred between owners, as they offer protection only to the policyholder. The new owner must purchase a separate owner’s title policy upon acquiring the property to ensure coverage for potential claims and title defects (Ramonas, 2020).

6. Do title insurance policies provide coverage for future title disputes or claims?

Title insurance policies typically cover issues arising from the property’s history up to the policy issuance date. It does not protect against future defects or claims, making it essential to conduct a thorough title search and address any concerns before purchasing the property (Investopedia, 2021).

About the Author

As a native Washingtonian, Carlos Reyes’ journey in the real estate industry began more than 15 years ago when he started an online real estate company. Since then, he’s helped more than 700 individuals and families as a real estate broker achieve their real estate goals across Virginia, Maryland and Washington, DC.

Carlos now helps real estate agents grow their business by teaching business fundamentals, execution, and leadership.

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